This means that AI doesn’t only pose questions of moral hazard, but it can be used to answer questions of morality using systems of logical reasoning from philosophy and ethics. Political Impacts: The Influence of AI on Decisions of the Government Where the political impacts of AI systems are considered, they refer to the decisions made by governments based on their own studies of the effects of AI on society. According to Holdren and Smith (2016), writing for the National Science and Technology Council, the government should fund artificial intelligence research as follows, “Recommendation 13: The Federal government should prioritize basic and long-term AI research. The Nation as a whole would benefit from a steady increase in Federal and private-sector AI R&D, with a particular emphasis on basic research and long-term, high-risk research initiatives. Because basic and long-term research especially are areas where the private sector is not likely to invest, Federal investments will be important for R&D in these areas.” Their report to the Executive Office of the President makes a demand for the government to fund research on AI systems as a partner with private concerns. It also states that the education system should promote instruction in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) programs to better equip students to master the study of and seek employment in the field of artificial intelligence.
ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS OF EMERGING AI SYSTEMS 12 The demand for greater government participation in the development of AI points to a separate ethical demand for socially just outcomes. The authors note that women and minorities are not well represented in the workplace for jobs dealing with AI and related subjects. This outcome is a direct result of a lack of focus on participation and direction of young women and minorities to STEM programs in the education system as it operates now. The authors go on to say that colleges and universities need to achieve increasing representation of these groups in STEM programs with an expected result of more women and minorities will get jobs dealing with AI in the future. Economic Impacts of AI There may be no sphere of life affected more by AI systems than the economy. According to Mark Purdy (2017), Managing Director-Economic Research, Accenture Institute for High Performance, “Artificial Intelligence heralds dramatic potential for growth for both the economy and for humans.” The reason that Purdy gave for this optimistic statement is that he sees the effect of AI in production as the cause of a doubling of economic growth in 35 industrialized nations by the year 2035. There are three branches of AI that are expected to contribute to this development. They are automation through robotic systems, intelligent decision-making systems and its effects on innovation as goods and services are disseminated through the marketplace. In Figure 1, an infographic shows the expected increase in growth as an estimated GDP value in 2035 for the countries listed (Daugherty & Purdy, 2016).
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