To better understand the mediating effects of

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To better understand the mediating effects of emotions and job satisfaction on the motivation- performance association, it is critical to examine both within- and between- person effects as they address different research questions. As the within-person effects focus on short-term changes, they are appropriate for examining the linkage between daily fluctuations of motivations, affective emotions and daily performance. In contrast, the between-person effects are better suited for addressing the more lasting associations observed among employees, such as the relationships between motivation, chronic emotional expression and general performance evaluation. Thus, simultaneous consideration of within- and between-person relationships has strongly been recommended for fully evaluating theoretical models (Curran and Bauer, 2011). Analyzing longitudinal nested data with a multilevel approach will enable an examination of the extent to which employee s intra-individual motivation and performance varies in real-time situations, as well as allowing a comparison of the different levels. However, previous multilevel research designs have provided inconclusive and mixed results in comparing within and between levels of analysis. Some investigators have suggested that variables at the within-person level are more strongly associated than at the between-person level (e.g. Fisher and Noble, 2004). 419 Employee motivation, emotions, and performance
Yet, others have argued that motivational mechanisms showed stronger relationships at the between-person level than at the within level of change (Brose et al. , 2010). Thus we hypothesize the following: H5. Within- person vs between-person effects are manifested differently such that the between-subject analysis will explain more of the job performance variance than the within-subject analysis. Method Participants Participants comprised employees from a variety of occupations working for different Israeli organizations. A total of 116 respondents completed the questionnaire for all nine days and were included in our sample. In total, 1,044 responses were collected (116 respondents × 9 days). Of the final sample, 59 percent were female and 58 percent were married or in a relationship. Respondents mean age was 31.76 years (SD ¼ 11.02), and average weekly work hours was 39.46 (SD ¼ 13.50) and an average 4.86-year work tenure (SD ¼ 3.20). Education levels ranged from 10 to 22 years ( M ¼ 13.99, SD ¼ 2.88). Of the respondents, 15.5 percent had managerial positions. Procedure Research assistants distributed the questionnaire and diary using referral sampling. Data collectors personally described the research objectives to potential respondents, and then sent emails that included a description of the purpose of the study and assurance of anonymity of all responses, instructions regarding completion of the surveys and a general questionnaire.

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