a. Analyze the steps of ethanol metabolism and describe how it causes hepatocellular damage. b. Analyze the main concepts of ketogenesis. Ketogenesis Concept Role Role of the hepatocytes Role of the mitochondria Triggers for ketogenesis Role of Acetyl-CoA Effect on oxaloacetate Cancer 5. Examine the basic concepts of cancer nomenclature and biology. a. Explain how a cancer cell’s biology differs from a normal cell’s biology. Normal Cell Biology Cancer Cell Biology b. Identify the cancer types which produce the tumor markers alpha fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, beta human chorionic gonadotropin, and prostate specific antigen. Tumor Marker Origin Alpha Fetoprotein Carcinoembryonic Antigen Beta Human Chorionic gonadotropin Prostate Specific Antigen c. Identify the origins of a cancer based on the following cancer nomenclature: Carcino-, sarco-, -oma, -blastoma, and carcinoma in situ. Term Definition Example Carcino- (prefix) Sarco- (prefix) -oma (suffix) Carcinoma in Situ -blastoma (suffix) d. Analyze the patterns of metastasis of the specified cancers (lung, colorectal, testicular, prostate, breast, head and neck, ovarian, sarcoma, melanoma). Primary cancer Sites of Metastasis Lung
7 Colorectal Testicular Prostate Breast Head and Neck Ovarian Sarcoma Melanoma e. Evaluate and describe the mechanisms of cancer metastasis. f. Analyze the TNM staging system for cancers. g. Examine the role and function of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in a cancer cell. h. Examine the role of the BRCA gene as it relates to the risk of developing cancer in men. i. Analyze the clinical manifestations of cancer: Paraneoplastic syndromes and Cachexia.
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- Fall '15