Currently Luxembourg is one of the capitals of the European Union together with

Currently luxembourg is one of the capitals of the

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Currently, Luxembourg is one of the capitals of the European Union, together with Strasbourg and Brussels. Many European institutions, including the Secretariat of the European Parliament, the Court of Justice of the European Union and some Directorate Generals of the European Commission are located in Luxembourg. 34. How such international nongovernmental organisations (INGOs) as Greenpeace, Medecins Sans Frontiers (Doctors Without Borders) the Red Cross and Amnesty International differ from IGOs in that they are not affiliated with governmental institutions? These organizations have been in the field for several decades now. They have seen injustice and experienced the frustration of failed programs. Staff have witnessed reoccurring need, stagnant health, wilting economies, and persistent illiteracy, even in the face of seemingly effective service delivery. In many ways, through rhetoric, programming and internal research, NGOs are pursuing methods to uproot social inequalities, stopping them not just for one child, today, but for all children, forever. The poverty-alleviation rhetoric is too lofty to be believable (with 1.7 billion people in absolute poverty, the problem won't disappear tomorrow), but at least attention to long-term outcomes helps staff and donors focus on methods to achieve structural – rather than piecemeal – changes. Nonetheless, this shift toward long-term poverty reduction has largely failed to reach the one area where structural changes are, arguably, most needed: conflict. Research is clear about the connection between poverty and violent conflict. Poverty – particularly relative poverty, or material and income inequality xii between groups of people – contributes to the presence of violence (Crocker, Hampson and Aall 2009). According to “Relative deprivation” theory, when people cannot meet their most basic needs, and neither government nor civil society provide an adequate peaceful outlet for expressing these needs, people become frustrated and often violent 35. How such international nongovernmental organisations (INGOs) as Greenpeace, Medecins Sans Frontiers (Doctors Without Borders) the Red Cross and Amnesty International differ from IGOs in that they are not affiliated with governmental institutions? Because a variety of international organizations that are non-territorial entities that meet three criteria: first, they have the international character of their composition and goals; secondly, the private nature of the foundation; and, thirdly, the voluntary nature of the activity. Also an important characteristic is the non-commercial nature of the activity, which does not allow to include transnational corporations (TNCs) in this group. 36. Why ‘Global citizens’ are the forces that produce a global culture?
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