Bu tt er ca dd y pre tt y bu dd y li tt le wa t er

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bu tt er ca dd y pre tt y bu dd y li tt le wa t er The proper phonetic symbol for a flap is ɾ - it's an "r" missing the top left serif. 70 70
For most speakers, in the right context a phonological /t/ will end up sounding phonetically just like a phonological /d/, since both become a flap [ɾ] (voiced). 71 71
Canadian raising Canadian raising One of the distinctive traits of Canadian English is the different pronunciation of the diphthongs [aj] and [aw] in some environments. [aj] and [aw] usually begin with the tongue body in a very low position (and usually central). The tongue body then moves upward and forward for [aj] or upward and backward for [aw] . 72 72
Most Canadian English speakers use another version of these diphthongs in some words . Instead of the tongue starting in a low and central position, it starts mid and central, in the position we use the symbol [ʌ] for. The tongue body then moves upward and either forward or backward, just as it does for the regular [aj] and [aw] . 73 73
74 74 normal [aw] raised [ʌw] normal [aj] raised [ʌj]
75 75 Here are examples of words with and without Canadian raising: loud [lawd] lout [lʌwt] house (verb) [hawz] house (noun) [hʌws] gouge [ɡawdʒ] couch [kʌwtʃ] eyes [ajz] ice [ʌjs] tribe [tɹajb] tripe [tɹʌjp] live [lajv] life [lʌjf] ride [ɹajd] write [ɹʌjt] You can notice in the list above that all the consonants that follow [ʌj] and [ʌw] are voiceless , while all of the consonants that follow regular [aj] and [aw] are voiced . The "raised" variants [ʌj] and [ʌw] will be used whenever the following consonant is voiceless.
76 76 otherwise regular [aj] and [aw] will be used (including the case when there is no following consonant, as in cow [kaw] and my [maj] ). You could check by the movement of your lower jaw. If you did not grow up as a native speaker of English in Canada, you probably have not much difference (except vowel length) across the pairs.
2.7. PROSODY: Above the segment The syllable is another unit of phonological representation. It binds sounds into units used for word construction. A single sound (e.g. ah) is a syllable consisting one vowel . Prosody defines the types of possible syllables in a language, and sounds and sound combinations in syllables. For example, /ŋ/ cannot start a syllable in English. How do we know that the syllable is a phonological unit? Native speakers can recognize and count syllables, and often can divide them. 77 77
There are phonological universals regarding syllables : 1.Most languages allow CV type of syllables. 2.A vowel forms the central part of the syllable (nucleus). 3.A consonant to the left of the nucleus is known onset . Onsets start the syllable. 4.A consonant to the right of the nucleus is known as a coda . 5.The combination of the nucleus and the coda is known as the rhyme (rime) . 78 78
Syllable Syllable structure and its graphic representation structure and its graphic representation The structure of the The structure of the syllable is syllable is hierarchical.

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