--GHRH from hypothalamus - inhibited by --GHIH (somatostatin) from hypothalamus --increased blood glucose -- Exogenous GH 18. Alternations in Growth Hormone Deficiency: -Dwarfism (child) Excess: - Gigantism (child) - Acromegly (adult) --increase IGF-1 --hypoglycemia 19. Thyroid Hormone (secretion) -Triiodothyronine (T3) 10% -Tetraiodothyronine (T4) (Thyroxine) 90% (T4 converts to T3)---Iodine required for synthesis -LIPID soluble-bound to plasma protein 20. Thyroid Hormone (function) -Increase metabolism and protein synthesis -controlled by negative feedback 21. Thyroid Hormone (Regulation) Hypothalamus stimulates anterior pituitary with TSH in response to: - cold -stress -decreased circulating T4 levels Anterior pituitary releases TSH->releases thyroid hormone- >stimulates iodide pump->increase production of thyroid hormone. Increase levels of thyroid hormone inhibit TRH and TSH 22. Thyroid Hormone (effects) -Increase metabolic rate -Increase oxygen consumption -Increase protein synthesis -Increase HR, CO -Increase ms activity 23. Hypothyroidism - Decrease in circulating thyroid Congenital (Cretinism) - easy to treat, if not then mental retardation, impaired growth -through placenta Acquired - Myxedema: distruction/removal of thyroid gland
-Hashimoto's thyroiditis *most common cause +autoimmune +thyroid ts is replaced by lymphocytes & fibrous ts. +Goiters form bc excess TSH shift in hormones? DECREASE in thyroid hormones= DECREASE metabolism DECREASE T3 & T4= INCREASE TSH & Thyroid antibodies 24. Hypothyroidism (Pathogenesis) DECREASE function of gland DECREASE hormone DECREASE bmr 25. Hypothyroidism (Clinical Manifestations) -weakness -cold intolerance -brittle hair,dry skin -decrease gi -mental dullness, lethargy may progress to COMA 26. Primary Thyroid malfunction Lack of TH (-) feedback on pituitary TSH secretion & hypothalamic TRH secretion Low TH High TSH & TRH 27. Secondary Thyroid malfunction Lack of (-) feedback to hypothalamic release of TRH & TSH & Thyroid TH Low TSH & TH High TRH 28. Hyperthyroidism -Hyperplasia -Adenoma (lack of negative feedback inhibition on hormone release= excess hormone production=lack of pituitary response to thyroid hormone levels) - OD of thyroid hormone 29. Graves Disease -Type 2 hypersensitivity reaction (Hypersensitivity of thyroid function) -autoimmune - Antibodies attack thyroid = body produces INCREASE amount of TH=Over activity of thyroid gland = Throtoxicosis - Lymphocytes and thyroid are stimulated by antibodies against TSH receptor -Opthalmopathy (Exophthamlus) & dermopathy (swelling and clubbing ) - Response of an endocrine gland to inappropriate signal 30. Hyperthyroidism INCREASE activity of gland
(Pathogenesis) INCREASE hormone INCREASE bmr 31. Hyperthyroidism (Clinical Menifestations) -speed up metabolism - irritability - tachycardia -sweating -heat intolerance -ms cramps 32.
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- Fall '17
- keisha lovence