Purified water water for injection irrigation inhalation Alcohols Ethyl Alcohol

Purified water water for injection irrigation

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: Purified water, water for injection, irrigation, inhalation Alcohols : Ethyl Alcohol, Isopropyl Alcohol Glycols – Glycerin (solvent, humectants and preservatives), Polyethylene Glycol Ketones – Acetone (Solvent for test, assay, and processing) Oils (Vehicle for emulsions, parenteral formulation): Almond, Castor, Corn Solubilizing – agents that are used to increase solubility of a drug substance Orgnaic Solvents: Alcohol Amphiphilic Substances: Sodium Lauryl Sulphate Complexing Agents: Cyclodextin
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Preservatives – added to a dosage form to protect it from microbial contaminations; used in multiple dose containers to inhibits growth of microorganisms, when water is present in formulation with some excipients for opthalamic and large volume parenterals, when an ingredient of the formulation may serve as a nutrient for microorganisms Oral Dosage Preservatives: Ethyl Alcohol (15 – 17.5%) Glycerin (50%) Benzyl Alcohol (1-2%) Benzoic Acid/Sodium Benzoate (0.1-0.3%) Methyl (0.05-0.25%) and Propyl Parabens (0.02 – 0.04%) Topical Formulation Preservatives: Organic Mercurial Derivative (ex Thimerosal); (0.002-0.01%) Opthalmic Formulations Salts of Quaternary Ammonium Bases (ex Benzalkonium Chloride); (0.01%) Chorobutanol (5%) <- NOT FOR ORAL OR TOPICAL PREPARATIONS Antioxidants – substances that are added to dosage forms to protect components of the dosage form which are subject to chemical degredation by oxidation Aqueous System Antioxidants: Ascorbic Acid Sodium Bisulfate Sodium Thiosulfite Oil System Antioxidants: Ascorbyl Palmitate Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA) Propyl Gallate Vitamin E
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CLICKER: Benzyl Alcohol is a pharmaceutical solvent: Yes or No; it is a pharmaceutical preservative Buffer – compound or a mixture of compounds that, when added to a solution, resists changes in the pH of the solution when there is a change in the pH Examples: Boric Acid, Sodium Borate, Sodium Acetate, Sodium Phosphate: Monobasic and Dibasic pH Adjusting Agents – agents that are used to adjust the pH of a solution Examples: Acetic Acid, Hydrochloric Acid, Sodium Biocarbonate, Phosphoric Acid Tonicity Adjusting Agents – agents that are used to provide physiological osmotic pressure to a solution or formulation Examples: Sodium Chloride, Sodium Nitrate, Dextrose Viscosity Inducing Agents – substances that provide a certain resistance to flow; used to achieve desired smoothness and consistency so that product can be applied easily; enhances palatability or mouth feel of the product Examples: Methycellulose, Carboxymethyl Cellulose, Acacia Surfactants – have hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts, lower the surface tension, facilitate wetting of hydrophobic substances and colloidal dispersion Examples: Sodium Lauryl Sulphate (Cationic Surfactant), Anoinic Soaps, Non-Ionic Emulsifying Agents – lower interfacial free energy, facilitate contact between water and oil Examples: Acacia, Tragacanth, HLB (Hydrophil-lipophil balance) Colors – substances that are added to drug products solely for the purpose of imparting colors; colors improve patient acceptance and can be natural or synthetic
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Natural Colors: Plant Pigments ,
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  • Summer '14
  • Pharmacology, Pharmaceutical formulation, Acacia, Drug Delivery Systems, active ingredient, Pharmaceutics

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