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: Purified water, water for injection, irrigation, inhalationAlcohols: Ethyl Alcohol, Isopropyl AlcoholGlycols – Glycerin (solvent, humectants and preservatives), Polyethylene GlycolKetones – Acetone (Solvent for test, assay, and processing)Oils (Vehicle for emulsions, parenteral formulation): Almond, Castor, CornSolubilizing – agents that are used to increase solubility of a drug substanceOrgnaic Solvents:AlcoholAmphiphilic Substances:Sodium Lauryl SulphateComplexing Agents:Cyclodextin
Preservatives – added to a dosage form to protect it from microbial contaminations; used in multiple dose containers to inhibits growth of microorganisms, when water is present in formulation with some excipients for opthalamic and large volume parenterals, when an ingredient of the formulation may serve as a nutrient for microorganismsOral Dosage Preservatives:Ethyl Alcohol (15 – 17.5%)Glycerin (50%)Benzyl Alcohol (1-2%)Benzoic Acid/Sodium Benzoate (0.1-0.3%)Methyl (0.05-0.25%) and Propyl Parabens (0.02 – 0.04%)Topical Formulation Preservatives:Organic Mercurial Derivative (ex Thimerosal); (0.002-0.01%)Opthalmic FormulationsSalts of Quaternary Ammonium Bases (ex Benzalkonium Chloride); (0.01%)Chorobutanol (5%) <- NOT FOR ORAL OR TOPICAL PREPARATIONSAntioxidants – substances that are added to dosage forms to protect components of the dosageform which are subject to chemical degredation by oxidationAqueous System Antioxidants:Ascorbic AcidSodium BisulfateSodium ThiosulfiteOil System Antioxidants:Ascorbyl PalmitateButylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA)Propyl GallateVitamin E
CLICKER: Benzyl Alcohol is a pharmaceutical solvent: Yes or No;it is a pharmaceutical preservativeBuffer – compound or a mixture of compounds that, when added to a solution, resists changes in the pH of the solution when there is a change in the pHExamples: Boric Acid, Sodium Borate, Sodium Acetate, Sodium Phosphate: Monobasic and DibasicpH Adjusting Agents – agents that are used to adjust the pH of a solutionExamples:Acetic Acid, Hydrochloric Acid, Sodium Biocarbonate, Phosphoric AcidTonicity Adjusting Agents – agents that are used to provide physiological osmotic pressure to a solution or formulationExamples:Sodium Chloride, Sodium Nitrate, DextroseViscosity Inducing Agents – substances that provide a certain resistance to flow; used to achieve desired smoothness and consistency so that product can be applied easily; enhances palatability or mouth feel of the productExamples:Methycellulose, Carboxymethyl Cellulose, AcaciaSurfactants – have hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts, lower the surface tension, facilitate wetting of hydrophobic substances and colloidal dispersionExamples: Sodium Lauryl Sulphate (Cationic Surfactant), Anoinic Soaps, Non-IonicEmulsifying Agents – lower interfacial free energy, facilitate contact between water and oilExamples: Acacia, Tragacanth, HLB (Hydrophil-lipophil balance)Colors – substances that are added to drug products solely for the purpose of imparting colors; colors improve patient acceptance and can be natural or synthetic
Natural Colors: Plant Pigments,
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Pharmacology, Pharmaceutical formulation, Acacia, Drug Delivery Systems, active ingredient, Pharmaceutics