Passive Immune serum antibodies or lymphocytes are given to the individual Body

Passive immune serum antibodies or lymphocytes are

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Passive – Immune serum –antibodies or lymphocytes are given to the individual. Body just has to copy. Epitopes or antigenic determinants – (P. 162) are areas on the antigen to which antibodies can bind Paratope – areas on antibodies to which the antigens can bind Hapten –(P. 160) can act as an antigen, cell marker, if the low-molecular-weight moledule binds to a larger protein molecule to provoke an immune response (ie. Penicillin molecules can act as Haptens, bind to protein molecules and elicit an allergic reaction, also: urushiol of poison ivy) Effector Cells of the Immune system Lymphocytes (WBC) B cells- mature in bone tissue, deal with antibody production (P. 158) Plasma cells – factories for the production of antibodies Memory cells – are rapidly activated if a second infection occurs with the same microbe T cells- mature in the Thymus, defend against intracellular pathogens (P. 159) Cytotoxic T cell – can identify and kill a target cell Helper T cells – regulate the immune response by helping the clonal selection process Natural killer Cells 2
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Humoral immunity – (P 159) circulate in the blood when stimulated by an antigen. B lymphocytes then initiate a process that leads to the release of antibodies to defend against foreign substances outside of the cells such as: bacterial toxins, bacteria, and viruses Steps include: 1. When the B cell detects an antigen with which it an react, it binds to the antigen (but has to wait for the T helper cells “high five” It then divides many times to produce a clone of many plasma cells and some memory cells 2. Many B cells require helper T cells to proliferated (reproduce) and differentiate (divide) into both plasma and memory B cells 3. Plasma cells – synthesize and release large numbers of antibodies 4. Memory cells - remain in lymphoid tissue ready to respond to subsequent exposure to the same antigen (allergy) Cell-mediated immunity – carried out by T-cells which occurs at the cellular level where the antigens are embedded in cell membranes or are inside host cells and are thus inaccessible to antibodies. Therefore, they cannot be activated directly by antigens. They functions to: clear the body of virus-infected cells, reject tumors, and battle transplanted tissues Steps include: 1. T cells have membrane receptors for antigens; these receptors bind to MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) molecule markers (which allow the cells to recognize each other) displaying foreign peptide fragments (protein fragments) in a cup on the surface of the macrophage (This helps the antibody to identify foreign antigens from host antigens.) {Excludes RBCs}P. 168 2. Cell-mediated immune responses involve differentiation and activation of several kinds of T cells and the secretion of cytokines (diverse group of soluble proteins that have specific roles in host defenses) specific to the pathogen ( lymphokines, interkeukins ) 3. The specific T cell then binds to the MHC with the pathogen protein fragment in it and then forms the memory cells,T helper cells, and T cytotoxic cells 4. The B cell then
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