Afrikaner Descendants of Dutch, French, German, and Scots settlers speaking a language (Afrikaans) derived heavily from Dutch and politically mobilized as an ethnic group through the twentieth century. Voortrekkers Pastoralist descendants of Dutch-speaking settlers in South Africa who moved north from the British-controlled Cape in 1836 to establish independent republics; later regarded as the founders of the Afrikaner nation. Boer Literally “farmer”; modern usage is a derogatory reference to Afrikaners. Apartheid In Afrikaans, “separateness.” First used in 1929 to describe Afrikaner nationalist proposals for strict racial separation and “to ensure the safety of the white race.” Pass laws Laws in apartheid South Africa that required Africans to carry identity books in which were stamped the permits required for them to travel between the countryside and the cities. Homelands Areas reserved for exclusive African occupation, established through the provisions of the 1913 and 1936 land legislation and later developed as semi-autonomous ethnic states during the apartheid era. Migrant laborers Laborers who move to another location to take a job, often a low-paying, temporary one. Township South African usage refers to a segregated residential area reserved for Africans, during apartheid tightly controlled and constituted mainly by public housing. Umkhonto-we- Sizwe Zulu and Xhosa for “Spear of the Nation,” the armed wing of the African National Congress, established in 1961 and integrated into the South African National Defense Force in 1994. Sanctions International embargos on economic and cultural contracts with a particular country; applied selectively to South Africa by various governments and the United Nations from 1948 until 1994. Influx control A system of controls that regulated African movement between cities and between towns and the countryside, enforcing residence in the homelands and restricting African choice of employment. Proportional representation A system of political representation in which seats are allocated to parties within multimember constituencies, roughly in proportion to the votes each party receives. In South Africa the entire country serves as a single 400-seat parliamentary constituency. Privatization The sale of state-owned enterprises to private companies or investors. Settler state Colonial or former colonial administrations controlled by the descendants of immigrants who settled in the territory. Democratization Transition from authoritarian rule to a democratic political order. Economic deregulation The lifting or relaxation of government controls over the economy, including the reduction of import taxes (tariffs) and the phasing out of subsidized prices for producers and consumers. Power sharing Constitutional arrangements to ensure that the major political parties share executive authority. These can include mandatory coalitions and allocation of senior official positions between parties.