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oSecond restriction was that one may use no more than the amount of force necessary to achieve victory ▪Once you’ve won, you cannot put to death the losing sides soldiers Special Means: Nuclear Warfare •Due to the two restrictions of war, people have begun to support nuclear pacifism (opposition to the use of nuclear weapons in war) •Specifically regarding the second restriction, they might oppose the use of unconventional weapons (i.e. poison gas) •Nuclear weapons are indiscriminate (1 bomb can’t be confined to only combatants) therefore are we justified in using or even threatening to use such weapons? (Obviously not, in accordance to the second restriction) •There’s a difference between threatening touse and using oWhat do we do if an aggressor threatens us with such use? oIf an enemy does do this, it’s to late nothing can be done about it oONLY alternative is to induce the enemy into not doing it by either appealing to reason or threaten retaliation oThese options give us the paradox of deterrence the enemy must believe we really will do what we threaten to do to be credible oIf we really believe nuclear warfare is immoral when the time comes how do we achieve creditability? ▪Either abandon deterrence when it comes to large nuclear weapons or we form clear intention actually to retaliate if the time comes Five Possible Policy Options On The Size Of Nuclear Weapons 1.Superiority: More than enemy has 2.Equality: About the same 3.Inferiority: Less than enemy has; but not much less (one recommended by Narveson) 4.Minimum Deterrence: ǲjust enoughǳ making it unwise for enemy to attack 5.Unilateral nuclear disbarment: None (retain conventional weapons) •Inferiority has promiseIf I say I have less than you (and leak information to confirm this), you will look like the warmonger •On the other hand, you won’t loose much from deterrence because the enemy will think twice oIn order to get on the good side of public opinion he will scale down, in which case we would tohopefully deescalating to 0 on both sides •Once you get into destruction brackets of this nature because of nuclear, war is seen as irrational by sane people •The policy of controlled inferiority is a device that will induce sanityIt will cause people to retreat from both nuclear and conventional war Special Means 2: Chemical And Biological Warfare •Seen as unethical and unwarranted •Have properties that make them unsuitable for warfare find more resources at oneclass.comfind more resources at oneclass.com