DSST Business Ethics and Society-Study Guide 3

Command and control regulations were popular in the

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"Command and control" regulations were popular in the early stages of American environmental regulation in the 1970's. They were based on engineering approaches to specific pollution sources, such as those designated as significant by the Clean Air Act and the Clean Water Act. RCRA, in particular, has become problematic in that, while it is successful at directing hazardous wastes to the appropriate disposal facility, it has been less successful at reducing the amount of waste produced. The alternative to "command and control" regulation is "performance oriented" regulation, in which specific environmental performance goals, such as a reduction in the amount of pollution associated with a process is specified by the regulation and each facility is left to determine the best method to achieve this goal. The concern with this approach is that it tends to be much more difficult to enforce because it requires an intimate understanding of the process and alternatives to the process. In general, the "performance oriented" approach requires the documentation of these and the environmental impacts associated with the process in a planning document, which can be reviewed by regulatory authorities. Environmental Management Systems generally form the basis for the format of such a plan. Environmental justice (EJ) Principle suggesting the benefits and burdens of a living environment should be spread equally across the different racial and socio-economic groups in society. The EPA defines EJ as the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations and policies. Environmental justice proponents
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generally view the environment as encompassing "where we live, work, and play" (sometimes "pray" and "learn" are also included) and seek to redress inequitable distributions of environmental burdens (pollution, industrial facilities, crime, etc.) and equitably distribute access to environmental goods such as nutritious food, clean air and water, parks, recreation, health care, education, transportation, safe jobs, etc. Self-determination and participation in decision-making are key components of environmental justice. According to a compilation of thoughts by several notable EJ organizations, root causes of environmental injustices include "institutionalized racism; the commoditization of land, water, energy and air; unresponsive, unaccountable government policies and regulation; and lack of resources and power in affected communities" Ergonomics – Study of safe and efficient work environments. Ergonomics also refers to making tools and equipment more comfortable and easy to use--i.e. an ergonomic mouse is designed to cause less wrist fatigue and fit more naturally to your hand. Basically it is modifying environment to worker instead of other way around Outsourcing Outsourcing, or subcontracting work to outside companies, is a common staffing strategy by companies that lack
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Command and control regulations were popular in the early...

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