-leadership varies along continuum, from lassiez-faire leadership (failure to lead- don’t set goals, surf Internet during work, etc.) to transactional leadership to transformational leadership -transactional leadership = clarifying employee’s roles and providing rewards contingent on performance; managers must set goals, monitor progress, reward/punish for level of accomplishment-usually not perceived well by employees-transformational leadership= transforms employees to pursue organizational goals over self-interests; requires higher levels of intrinsic motivation and loyalty from followers; can be learned -ex) Clarence Otis-see highlighted slide -transactional & transformational leadership are opposite ends of continuumBass & Avolio’s 4 transformational leadership behaviors:-inspirational motivation- establishing attractive vision of future-idealized influence- sacrificing for good of group; be role model- individualized consideration- support, encouragement, empower-intellectual simulation – behaviors that seek innovative/creative solutions-cultures that are adaptive/flexible are more likely to create environments that foster opportunity for transformational leadership; individual’s life experiences play role in developing this leadership style -transformational model of leadership: starts with individual characteristics/leader behavior (see above) effect on followers outcomes RESEARCH/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS OF TRANSFORMATIONAL MODEL-supported by research-direct relationship between transformational leadership & work outcomes-important to use all forms of transformational leadership-managerial implications – best leaders are transactional and transformational; transformational leader does not only affect individual-level outcomes but also group-level; employees in organization can be trained to be more transformational & transactional; transformational leaders can be ethical/unethical -when company is in steady state, we do not want transformational leadership-we want transformational leader in contingent situation (env. uncertainty)-opposition to theory- followers are important! They may not need a leader and may be successful on won 5) EMERGING APPROACHESLMX (leader-member exchange) model -dyadic relationships between leaders and followers is crucial6
-leaders develop unique relationships with people reporting to them- forming of vertical dyads results from leader’s attempt to designate roles – creates 2 distinct types of leader-member exchange relationships -in-group exchange = partnership characterized by mutual trust, respect, liking-out-group exchange=
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- Spring '13