Communicative planning : Communicative planning approaches focus on the strategic discourse. Planning aims at a consensus among the stakeholder through the power of the better argument in non-hierarchic negotiations. The strategic concept becomes a learning tool to enable regional actors to make responsible decisions. Planners act as facilitators, mediators, and moderators. Planning through projects : In spatial planning this approach is associated with incrementalistic approaches, in particular the ‘logical incrementalism’ by James Quinn, the ‘mixed scanning’ by Amitai Etzioni and in
Induced versus Autonomous Behaviour in Regional Development – A Process Model for Regional Strategy Formation Thorsten Wiechmann 12 Germany with the ‘perspective incrementalism’ by Karl Ganser. A piecemeal, incremental course of action is realised. To a large extend concrete projects substitute abstract programmes. Planning is constricted to spatially, temporally, and contentual limited interventions. Non-planning : The process model allows also analysing regional development approaches that abandon all forms of intentional comprehensive planning, e.g. in the tradition of the ‘disjointed incrementalism’ by Charles Lindblom. Interventions are restricted to the determination of abstract rules (within the institutional context) and the communication of general values and objectives in the regional strategic discourse. Consequently the influence on the principally autonomous incrementalists is weak. Unlike most models in planning theory the present model does not assume a plan-making subject. Instead special emphasis is placed on the strategic actions from a wide range of regional actors with individual intentions and decision alternatives. Hence the process model is especially suitable for the complex context of regional development. An important restriction was already mentioned: many factors remain outside the model. This is in particular true with regard to the institutional context and the autonomous strategic behaviour, but also for the strategic discourse. The model does not describe a closed system, but a conceptional framework showing fundamental relations between different observable variables. In addition to the simple description of the regional strategy formation it is possible to identify causal relations. However, the deduction of prognoses is not possible. The process model for analysing regional strategy formation illustrates the ambiguous nature of spatial strategies. It reveals contrasting theoretical perspectives on strategic planning. In dealing with the contradictory requirements of the linear and the adaptive strategy model regions have to make a choice: either they consider both perspectives at the same time while accepting the contradictoriness of the underlying paradigms or they decouple the two perspectives. This could be done temporally by alternating phases of rational planning and incremental adaptation or with regard to the institutional setting, i.e. to practise a regional division of work where different institutions adopt different strategic perspectives.
- Winter '19
- Regional Strategy Formation