CHEM 151 study guide for all chapters

2 acetylsalicylic acid aspirin was prepared by

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2. Acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin ) was prepared by chemical synthesis just before the dawn of the 20 th century. The synthesis started from phenol and involved two steps. Give the two steps using molecular formulas of starting material, intermediate, and product as well as the reagents and conditions used. Name the chemist responsible for each step. 3. Name the three scientists who won the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology in 1982 for their work on the arachidonic acid metabolites. 4. Describe (10 words or less) the mechanism of action of aspirin and related medicines. 5. Draw the structures of the following naturally occurring molecules: a) Salicin b) Arachidonic acid c) Prostacyclin d) Thromboxane
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6. Match the following names of pain-relieving medications with the appropriate molecular structure of their active ingredient. (Tylenol ® , Vioxx ® , Advil ® , Celebrex ® ) _________ _________ _________ _________
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Chapter 5: Camphor 1. Cinnamomum camphora , as species of laurel trees, produces a substance that has been used for centuries for medicinal and embalming purposes as well as scent in various instances. Name that compound, give its molecular structure, and provide the name of the first chemist to synthesize it. 2. Explain (25 words or less) Bredt’s rule in organic chemistry and give the starting material of a modern industrial process for the production of the compound isolated from Cinnamomun camphora .
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Chapter 6: Terpineol 1. Define the term terpene and name four members of this class of natural products. 2. Give the molecular structure of terpineol, its natural source, and name of the chemist who synthesized it in the laboratory for the first time. 3. Provide the names and molecular structures of the naturally occurring compounds responsible for the fragrances of the following items: a) Musk b) Roses c) Sweet vanilla d) Geranium
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4. Describe with chemical formulas and chemical equations the preparation of a Grignard reagent and its use in chemical synthesis.
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Chapter 7: Tropinone 1. Define the term alkaloid and name five members of this family of natural products. 2. Describe with molecular structures, reagents and conditions, and mechanistic arrows where appropriate, the total synthesis of tropinone by Sir Robert Robinson. 3. Name one theory, discovery, or invention associated with each of the following scientists, clearly designating those who won a Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
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Chapter 8: Haemin 1. Provide the molecular structure of haemin and explain its role in biology (25 words or less). 2. Give the molecular structures of Tyrian purple and indigo, and name two additional famous dyes.
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