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1. Democracy and perpetual peace2. Clash of civilizations3. World order- or disorder?4. Political globalization5. Tribalism: not one world, but many?One more question...“How on earth did he know that i had been in Afghanistan?” - Sherlock Holmes and Watson
Changing Human Geographies01:42Global Challenges: A World Without Us?
Changing Human Geographies01:42Norton, Chapter 3History of humanity = a history of human impacts on the environment (is humanitya part of nature?) These impacts are, in part, a direct result of the survival instincts of the species impacts; also, result from negligence, greed, etc. Some/many impacts pose serious threats to the survival of the species and the future of the planet/Human impacts:the consequences of any human activity on the physical environmentExamples: deforestation, climate change, pollution, desertification, habitat destruction, species extinction, etc. Question:how/why do these impacts occur? Anthropocentric view – human existence is the source of all value; resource are forhuman useExample: Why is there pollution?Environment movement - product of 1960sRachel Garson - Silent SpringHuman impacts dependent on: Population (numbers) Affluence (per capita income) how people are living Technology (labour vs. Energy intensive)The Evolution of Human ImpactsPalaeolithic Period (early Stone Age) 1.5 million years B.PPossible Impacts - use of fire for hunting
Changing Human Geographies01:42Large scale destruction of vegetation; extinction of megafaunaNeolithic Period (late Strong Age) Up to early HolocenePossible impacts -origins of agriculture (breeding plants/animals)Wild species lost to domesticationHolocene – AnthropoceneMost recent 10,00 yearsPopulation and affluence increase, technology increased variety of impactsIndustrial Revolution18thcentury to present Earth’s Vital Signs(Norton, pp. 115-117)Catastrophists (Pessimistic- doom and gloom ) vs. Cornucopians (Optimistic-we have a change to make difference and save world) Who is right Who should we believe “... it is difficult to separate the many very real problems from the numerous exaggerated claims” (Norton, p.115)Question:is global warming (p. 108- 115), a “very real problem” or an “exaggerated claim”?How can we respond to an uncertain future?New technologies to counteract impactsAdaptation to environmental changeConservationNew philosophy ( see table 3.2, p.95)
Changing Human Geographies01:42Sustainability/ Sustainable DevelopmentDefined as: development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs (p.118)But, is this possible? Is this realistic? Does it make sense? Dr. Peace is very sceptical about this definitionSummaryComplexity of human-environment relationsComplex interdependence of factors which underlie human impacts (political, economic, social, etc.)3 Contentious issues (p. 93)What is the relationship between environmental quality and the economy?