-It leads to dehydration and weight loss. -Starvation is a form of this disorder. 7. Amino acids relationship in metabolism: a. Sickle cell -Is a group of disorders that affects hemoglobin, the molecule in red blood cells that delivers oxygen to cells throughout the body.
-People with this disorder have atypical hemoglobin molecules called hemoglobin S, which can distort red blood cells into sickle, or crescent, shape. b. Phenylketonuria (PKU) -It is an inherited disorder that increases that levels of substance called phenylalanine in the blood.
1. What is Lipids (fat)? Lipids -Are compounds that are insoluble in water but are soluble in organic solvents such a s ether and chloroform. -Lipids that are important to our discussion include fats and oil (triglycerides or triacylglycerols), fatty acids, phospholipids, and cholesterol. Fats -Are esters of glycerol and three fatty acids. -They are important in the diet as energy sources and as sources of essential fatty acids and fat soluble vitamins, which tend to associate with fats. -They also contribute satiety, flavor, and palatability to the diet. 2. Function of Lipids Lipids can serve a diverse range of functions within a cell, including: ▪Storage of energy for long-term use (e.g. triglycerides) ▪Hormonal roles (e.g. steroids such as estrogen and testosterone) ▪Insulin –both thermal (triglycerides) and electrical (sphingolipids) ▪Protection of internal organs (e.g. triglycerides and waxes) ▪Structural components of cells (e.g. phospholipids and cholesterol) 3. What are essential fatty acids and non-essential fatty acids? Essential Fatty Acids ▪Unsaturated fatty acids that are essential to human health, but cannot be manufactured in the body. ▪Cannot be synthesizes by the body. ▪Two types are linoleic acid and a-linoleic acid. ▪Linoleic acid, Linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid. Non-essential Fatty Acids ▪Various amino acids that are required for normal health and growth, that can be synthesized within the body or derived in the body from essential amino acids ▪Can be synthesized by the body
▪Include arachidic acid, stearic acid, palmitic acid. Etc. ▪Caproic acid, Lauric acid, Myristic acid, Palmitic Acid, Stearic Acid, Arachidic Acid, Linoceric Acid. 4. Differentiate the following: a)Saturated fat from unsaturated fats (give example) •Saturated Fat -Meats, Butter, and dairy products -Solid at room temperature -Increase levels of “bad” cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein) -Low-density lipoprotein clogs arteries. •Unsaturated fat -Vegetable oils -Liquid at room temperature -Increase levels of “good” cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein) -High-density lipoprotein, or HDL, “grabs” LDL where LDL is broken down and eventually removed from the body. b) Monounsaturated from polyunsaturated (give examples) •Monounsaturated Fats -It is a fat or fatty acid having only one double bod in their molecular structure. -Have a higher melting point than polyunsaturated fatty acids; they are liquids at room temperature and semisolids or solids when refrigerated.