Ch9-Probability & Hypo.doc

# They do not necessarily go hand in hand 4 a p

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Hence, both significance and degree of change should be examined in research. they do not necessarily go hand in hand. 4 A .P RACTICAL H YPOTHESIS T ESTING { P 118} s9.9 F9-2 9-10

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5 A .S UMMARY Probability plays an important role in many research decisions. The normal curve and many sampling distributions are based on probability statements and are used extensively in hypothesis testing. The hypothesis test is a vital tool for making research decisions. When performing a hypothesis test, the researcher needs to consider the following: stating the null and alternative hypotheses, setting a level of significance in regard to making type I or II errors, selecting an appropriate statistic and sampling distribution, comparing a calculated statistic to a critical statistic, deciding whether to accept or reject the null hypothesis, and drawing a research conclusion. Since the hypothesis test doesn’t provide absolute proof, the researcher has the ultimate responsibility of arriving at the appropriate conclusions. 6 A .L EARNING A CTIVITIES 1. Have you accomplished the objectives stated at the beginning of the chapter? If not, go back and reread the concepts you’re uncertain about. Also, ask your professor questions about these topics. 2. Perform hypothesis tests for the examples given in the Statistics Exercises section. 3. Examine several research articles and determine the following: Were two- or one-tailed statistical tests used? Explain the rationale for each in these studies. What was the reported level of significance? Does the level of significance seem appropriate for the type of research that was done? Does a higher or lower alpha level seem justified? Was the beta level reported? If so, what was the level? 7 A .S TATISTICS E XERCISES For the following research conditions perform a hypothesis test (show all major steps) and provide the appropriate research conclusion.
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• Spring '11
• OxanaWieland
• Statistics, Null hypothesis, Statistical hypothesis testing, researcher, Statistical significance, Type I and type II errors

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