Line charts trend charts time series are effective

Info icon This preview shows pages 8–15. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Line Charts (trend charts, time series) are effective tools to represent data that are measured over time (e.g., monthly, quarterly, annually) A scatter diagram is a graphical presentation between two quantitative variables. 8
Image of page 8

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Constructing a Stem and Leaf Diagram: Describing Data Graphically 9 Numbers to the left of the vertical line form the stem Each digit to the right of the vertical line is a leaf 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 8 9 2 3 3 5 6 6 0 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 2 2 4 5 5 6 7 8 8 0 0 2 4 6 6 6 7 8 2 3 5 5 8 9 9 4 6 7 8 2 4 1
Image of page 9
Describing Data Graphically - Summary 10 Categorical Data Tabular Methods Frequency distribution Relative frequency distribution Percent frequency distribution Graphical Methods Bar chart Pie chart Quantitative Data Tabular Methods Frequency distribution Relative frequency distribution Percent frequency distribution Cumulative frequency distribution Cumulative relative frequency distribution Cumulative percent frequency distribution Graphical Methods Histogram Ogive Stem and Leaf Display
Image of page 10

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Measures of Center, Location, and Variation 11 Mean: Sum of values divided by the number of values Median: In an ordered array (lowest to highest), the median is the number that splits the distribution in half numerically Mode: The value that occurs most Shape of a distribution: Mean = Median Mean < Median Median < Mean Right-Skewed Left-Skewed Symmetric (Longer tail extends to left) (Longer tail extends to right)
Image of page 11
Measures of Center, Location, and Variation 12 Percentiles Arrange the data in increasing order Compute the percentile index: If i is not an integer, round up. The next integer greater than i denotes the position of the p th percentile. If i is an integer, the p th percentile is the average of the values in positions i and i +1. p = percentile of interest n = number of observations Quartiles split the data into four parts, with each part containing approximately one- fourth, or 25% of the observations. Q1: first quartile, or 25th percentile Q2: second quartile, or 50th percentile (also the median) Q3: third quartile, or 75th percentile Interquartile Range
Image of page 12

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Measures of Center, Location, and Variation 13 Box and Whisker Plot The center box extends from Q1 to Q3 The line within the box is the median The whiskers extend to the limits Outliers are plotted outside the calculated limits 25% 25% 25% 25% Outliers Lower 1st Median 3rd Upper Limit Quartile Quartile Limit * * The lower limit is Q1 – 1.5 (Q3 – Q1) The upper limit is Q3 + 1.5 (Q3 – Q1)
Image of page 13
Measures of Center, Location, and Variation 14 Range Range = Largest value – Smallest value Ignores the way in which data are distributed Sensitive to outliers IQR is the difference between the third quartile and the first quartile; Q3 – Q1 Variance Population Variance Sample Variance Standard Deviation Population Standard Deviation Sample Standard Deviation
Image of page 14

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 15
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern