without a payoff. What do you do? You go away. So does the response of handle pulling (for that particular machine, at any rate).Time Out: A time-out procedure usually involves removing the individual from a situation in which reinforcement occurs. Time-out is a variation of response cost: It prevents reward from following an undesirable response. For example, children who fight with each other can be sent to separate rooms and allowed out only when they are able to behave more calmly.Punishment: If a response is followed by discomfort or an undesirable effect, the response will be suppressed (but not necessarily extinguished).Shaping: Shaping means reinforcing actions that are closer and closer approximations to a desired response. For example, to reward an intellectually challenged child for saying “ball,” you might beginby reinforcing the child for saying anything that starts with a b sound.Stimulus Control: Responses tend to come under the control of the situation in which they occur. If you set your clock 10 minutes ahead, it may be easier to leave the house on time in the morning. Yourdeparture is under the stimulus control of the clock, even though you know that it is fast.Learning Objective PGAT_COON_2016_15.5.2 – Describe and provide examples of how nonreinforcement can be used to bring about the extinction of a maladaptive behavior; and explain why many undesirable responses can be eliminated by identifying and removing the reinforcers maintaining them, particularly attention, approval, and concern. Learning Objective PGAT_COON_2016_15.5.3 – Describe and provide examples of how positive reinforcement and operant shaping can be applied through the use of tokens to reinforce specific target behaviors.Learning Objective PGAT_COON_2016_15.5.4 – Describe and provide examples of how token economies are applied in institutional settings; and explain the importance of shifting patients to social rewards toward the end of the token economy program.Token Economy: A therapeutic program in which desirable behaviors are reinforced with tokens that can be exchanged for goods, services, activities, and privileges.Gateway Question 15.6: What are the major humanistic therapies?
(Add 1,000 or more words beyond question word count of 2,007)Learning Objective PGAT_COON_2016_15.6.1 – Differentiate the humanistic therapies from the cognitive therapies; compare the humanistic therapies to traditional psychoanalysis regarding their goals, view of human nature, and the doctor and client/patient relationship; and discuss Carl Rogers’ nondirective approach known as client-centered (or person-centered) therapy. Learning Objective PGAT_COON_2016_15.6.2 – Discuss the four essential conditions that Rogers believed must be maintained by effective therapists: unconditional positive regard, empathy, authenticity, and reflection.