F i g u r e 1 7 outdoor rooms for separate uses color

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F I G U R E 1 7. Outdoor rooms for separate uses Color and texture can also be used to differentiate spaces by making each area visually unique or distinct. The hierarchy of spaces or rooms can also be delineated through the use of visual weight. Areas of high importance can include features and elements that give them high visual weight and attract attention. Scale and proportion are also useful principles for spatial organization and hierarchy. A space with a distinctly different size relative to the other spaces tends to assume more importance because of the contrast. Scale is also very important in determining the type of features that can be used in the landscape; different uses require different square footage to be functional. For example, features such as swimming pools, dog runs, and
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12 vegetable gardens have a minimum required size, and a patio has a minimum size depending on the number of people expected to use the patio at one time. Spaces can be connected through the use of lines, such as pathways, or they can be visually connected through the use of emphasis (focal points) that captures attention and leads the eye, or through repetition of elements that connects spaces through similar objects. Another important concept of outdoor design is direction or physical movement within a space. Movement or circulation can be controlled through the use of different materials, spatial organization, focal points, and intentional marking of pathways. Using all of the elements and principles will tie the entire landscape together in a unified, functional manner. Summary The fundamental concept of landscape design is problem solving through the use of horticultural science, artful composition, and spatial organization to create attractive and functional outdoor “rooms” for different uses. The elements (visual qualities)—line, form, texture, color, and visual weight, and principles (guidelines) —proportion, order, repetition, and unity of design are used to create spaces, connect them, and make them visually pleasing to the eye. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A. & M. University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Millie Ferrer-Chancy, Interim Dean A previous version of this publication by Dewayne L. Ingram has been permanently archived. Please visit http://www.uflib. ufl.edu/ufdc/?b=IR00000113&v=00001 to view the archival copy.
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