b.i.3.a.v. Angiotensin II b.i.3.a.v.1. Causes vasoconstriction of blood vessels b.i.3.a.v.2. Stimulates posterior pituitary gland to release ADH b.i.3.a.v.3. Tells Zona glomerulosa to secrete aldosterone b.i.3.a.v.4. Thrust is stimulated b.i.3.a.vi. Due to angiotensin II, blood pressure goes up b.i.3.a.vii. Why do endocrine cells secrete renin? b.i.3.a.vii.1. Blood pressure is down b.i.4. Erythropoietin b.i.4.a. Is released when oxygen tension in your plasma is low c. The Heart c.i. Has endocrine cells located in right atrium and the wall of the right atrium c.ii. Secretes ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide) c.iii. Secretes BNP (Brain natriuretic peptide) c.iv. When are they secreted?
c.iv.1. When there is too much blood getting pumped into the right atrium if the walls of the right atrium feel too stretched then mechanoreceptors of the endocrine cells and secretes ANP and BNP which antagonizes ADH and aldosterone then we end up going into diaresis which makes more water into the urine, blood volume blood pressure goes down, therefore blood returning to the heart due to the next cycle will be at normal. d. The thymus d.i. Produces thymosins d.i.1. Responsible for T cell (lymphocyte) maturation e. Adipose Tissue e.i. Leptin e.i.1. When fat cells secrete leptin, it inhibits appetite which causes satiety (the feeling of being full), leptin stimulates hypothalamic nerves which suppress this stimulation e.i.2. Why is a person overweight? e.i.2.a. Sometimes receptors lose sensitivity for the hormone e.ii. Resistin e.ii.1. Reduces insulin sensitivity e.ii.2. People who are overweight have more resistin
Chapter 19 1. Blood a. The Cardiovascular System: An introduction a.i. The heart a.ii. Arteries a.iii. Arterials a.iv. Capillaries a.v. Venoles a.vi. Veins b. Functions and composition of blood b.i. Extracellular matrix b.i.1. Plasma b.ii. Platelets b.ii.1. Formed elements b.iii. The function of blood b.iii.1. Transportation b.iii.2. Ph balance b.iii.2.a. Blood has the capacity to regulate its own pH b.iii.3. Osmotic balance b.iii.3.a. Blood is responsible for osmotic concentrations, determines if tissues have high or low concentration in solutes, determining if you have hypotension or hypertension b.iii.4. Clotting b.iii.5. Defense and regulation of body temperature
b.iii.5.a. We don’t fight off infections in our blood, but we fight in the connective tissue b.iii.5.b. Regulation of body temperature b.iii.5.b.i. Vasodilation and vasoconstriction c. The Composition of Blood c.i. Sample of whole blood c.i.1. Plasma (55%) c.i.2. Formed elements (45%) c.ii. Plasma proteins c.ii.1. Albumins (60%) c.ii.1.a. If they leaked out of the extracellular fluid, water will follow causing blood pressure to drop allowing the head to get no blood, you die. c.ii.1.b. Necessity for keeping water coming into our blood, sustains our blood pressure c.ii.1.c. BCOP (Blood colloid osmotic pressure) c.ii.1.c.i. If you have a lot of protein in blood and it’s not in plasma, water wants to go into the blood, when water comes into the blood, blood volume and pressure stays up.
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