Equivalent or smoking the sickle cell trait is rarely

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Equivalent]; or Smoking). The Sickle-Cell Trait is rarely Fatal. And for an Individual in a Low-Altitude Region where Malaria is Endemic, the Sickle-Cell Trait can be Advantageous to Survival. Individuals with Sickle-Cell Trait tend to be resistant to the Causative Agent of Malaria, the Protozoan Plasmodium falciparium . A Plasmodium inside an RBC is “invisible” to the Immune System. But a Plasmodium in an RBC will consume all the Oxygen. This will result in the Sickling of this RBC. This Sickled RBC -- and the Plasmodium inside -- can be removed from the Circulation by Splenic Macrophages (i.e. Macrophages in the Spleen). What do these Splenic Macrophages do? A. These Inflammatory Cells phagocytose Antigens and destroy them. B. These Inflammatory Cells degranulate, releasing Cytokines that alert the Immune System to the Presence of Antigens. C. These Antigen Presenting Cells phagocytose Antigens. They can then destroy these Antigens; or they can process these Antigens, and present these Antigens to CD4 + T H 0 T Cells (which upon Activation will become T H 1 or T H 2 T Cells). D. These Antigen Presenting Cells phagocytose Antigens. They can then destroy these Antigens; or they can process these Antigens, and present these Antigens to B Cells (which upon Activation will become Plasma Cells).
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MIC 101 Exam 2 Page 10 11. Bone Marrow Transplants are unique in that a complete Immune System-in- Miniature is being transferred from the Bone Marrow of the Donor to the Recipient. These Donor Immune System Cells, while small in Number, can mount a strong Response against the Recipient, resulting in what is called Graft-versus-Host Disease (GVHD). Nearly half of all Bone Marrow Transplants result in GVHD. Graft-versus-Host Disease is analogous to a World War II Movie in which a Royal Navy Destroyer captures a German U-Boat and locks the German Crew in the Destroyer’s Brig. A Royal Navy Town Class Destroyer had a Crew of 190; a Kriegsmarine (German = war navy) Type II U-Boat had a Crew of 25. That’s nearly an 8 to 1 Advantage so you’d think the Royal Navy Destroyer Crew would be perfectly safe. But when these 25 Germans escape from the Brig in Reel 2, they will function as a well-trained and well-disciplined Fighting Unit and they will successfully overwhelm their 190 British Captors. They will take over the Destroyer by the End of Reel 3. Likewise, the Immune System Cells from the Donor Bone Marrow can successfully overwhelm the Defenses of the Bone Marrow Recipient. We’ll see in Reel 4 that the U-Boat Captain -- played by Daniel Craig -- is actually a Good German who wants to be a Physician (“I hope to provide a Quantum of Solace.”) and that the U-Boat First Officer -- played by Christian Bale with a ridiculously thick German Accent -- is a Very Bad German who tries in vain to bribe the British Destroyer Captain -- played by Pierce Brosnan -- with ill-gotten Gold Ingots (Close-up of embossed Nazi Eagle and Swastika on Gold Ingots goes here). Brosnan responds to Bale with thinly veiled Contempt: “The World is not Enough.” But that very same Night a North Atlantic Winter Storm begins icing the Destroyer’s Superstructure, threatening to capsize the Ship. Bale is washed overboard, the Ranting of his ridiculously thick German Accent receding into the Storm (yes, it’s a Dark Night for Bale). The Germans and British, realizing they’re all in the same Boat, join Forces against Nature and begin to chop-away Ice to save the Destroyer. Brosnan promises Craig and his Crew full Immunity from any Prosecution: “We share a common Bond; Britannia will waive the Rules.” But I digress; let’s get back to the Question. One of the most Important Cells in the early Stages of GVHD is a Lymphocyte that acts as a Special Services Officer for the Immune System. These Lymphocytes are CD4 - CD8 - (i.e. they have either neither the CD4 nor the CD8 Lymphocyte Markers). These Lymphocytes are Licensed to Kill and they will indeed kill Recipient Cells as though they were Virus-Infected Cells. This Important Cell in the early Stages of GVHD is a(n) -- A. Eosinophil. B. Macrophage. C. Natural Killer Cell (NK Cell). D. Neutrophil.
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