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oFranjo Tudjman (b. 1922) led Croatia•In the summer of 1990, in the wake of the changes in the Soviet bloc nations, Slovenia and Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia.oThe full European community recognized their independence.By June 1991, full-fledged war had erupted between Serbia and Croatia.•Conflict ensued until 1992 when Croatian and Serbian forces determined to divide Bosnia-Herzegovina.oBosnian Muslims became crushed between the two opposing forces.
oSerbia pursued a policy of “ethnic cleansing” and killed or forcibly removed many Bosnian Muslims.•The unremitting bombardment of Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia-Herzegovina, brought the violence of the Yugoslav civil war to the attention of the world.oThe United Nations attempted to impose sanctions but go little results.oAfter a shell exploded at a marketplace in Sarajevo, killing dozens of people, Nato forced the Serbs to withdraw their artillery from around Sarajevo.oNATO carried out strategic airstrikes.In 1995, the leaders of the warring forces negotiated a peace agreement in Dayton, Ohio.•Bosnia was granted independence.•NATO troops have enforced the terms of this agreement.oToward the end of the 1990s, Serbian aggression against ethnic Albanians in the province of Kosovo again drew NATO into Yugoslav affairs.International media broadcasted images of ethnic Albanians were rounded up and deported from Kosovo, where they constituted the majority population.•There were many atrocities, casualties, and deaths.In 1999, NATO again carried out an air campaign and sent troops into Kosovo to safeguard ethnic Albanians.•The air campaign was the largest military action in Europe since the close of World War II.oIn 200, a revolution overthrew Milosevic and the new Yugoslav government turned him over to the International War Crimes Tribunal at the Hague where his trial dragged on without a verdict.Milosevic died in prison, presumably froma heart attack, in 2006.Section Nine: The Rise of Radical Political Islamism•Section OverviewoAttacks of September 11, 2001 on the United States impacted US foreign policy in a number of ways.First, it transformed American policy toward the Middle East.The end of the Cold War has been succeeded by a new political world order in which both the United States and the nations of Europe, including the Russian Federation, are endangered by terrorist attacks from non-governmental organizations.oRadical Islamismis the term scholars use to describe an interpretation of Islam that came to have a significant impact on the Islamic world during the decades of decolonization.Ideas informing radical Islamism extend back to the 1930s and resistance to British rule in Egypt.