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3.Why are employers increasingly organizing work in non-standard ways? What effect does this have on women?
textbook. Less often discussed is that these forms of employment entail fewer direct costs for employers, although managing a more casual workforce may entail higher transactional costs because of higher numbers and greater turnover. The costs that are transferred from employers to workers, via poorer remuneration and more hazardous work, are discussed even less often.Combined with what we learned about social reproduction in Unit 1, framing non-standard work as a “choice” (Steen, et al., 2013, p. 27) seems difficult to justify. Evidently, when HRM practitioners decide to use or to implement non-standard working conditions, presumably to enhance corporate productivity, significant negative social effects can follow. These effects are disproportionately borne by women. Again, a seemingly technical solution (e.g., outsourcing, hiring temporary staff)hides choices about who should benefit from work. Such decisions—over which workers have little control—can affect workers very negatively. This may offer useful insight into why workers choose to collaborate (often through unions) to resist employers.Unit 3Review Your ProgressYou should now be ready to write two- to three-paragraph answers to these questions: