The unifying threads of collaboration scholarship and empowerment are

The unifying threads of collaboration scholarship and

This preview shows page 40 - 42 out of 67 pages.

The unifying threads of collaboration, scholarship, and empowerment are attributes of advanced practice that exert influence across all five domains and characterize the professional model of nursing practice. Collaboration ensures that the contributions of all caregivers are valued. APNs are expected to create and sustain a culture that supports scholarly inquiry, whether it is questioning a common nursing practice or developing and disseminating an innovation. APNs support the empowerment of staff, ensuring that nurses have authority over nursing practice and opportunities to improve practice. The Strong Model is a parsimonious model that has many similarities with other advanced practice conceptualizations. For example, its domains are consistent with the competencies delineated in the Hamric Model. Unlike the Hamric Model, which posits direct care as the central competency that informs all other advanced nursing practice competencies, all domains of practice in the Strong Model, including direct care, are considered “mutually exclusive of each other and exhaustive of practice behaviors” ( Ackerman et al., 1996 ). Like the Synergy Model, discussed later, role development is incorporated within the model (novice to expert). As described in the original article, the Strong Model emerged from consideration of the ACNP as a combined CNS-NP role. It is notable that this model was the result of a collaborative effort between practicing APNs and APN faculty members. One could infer that such a model would be useful for guiding clinical practice and planning curricula, two of the purposes of conceptual models outlined earlier in this chapter. The Strong Model has informed studies of advanced practice nursing in critical care since its publication (e.g., Mick & Ackerman, 2000 ; Becker, Kaplow, Muenzen, & Hartigan, 2006 ; Chang, Gardner, Duffield, & Ramis, 2010 ). More recently, Ackerman and coworkers (2010) have proposed an administrative model for managing APNs. Oberle and Allen: The Nature of Advanced Practice Nursing At the time that they wrote, Oberle and Allen (2001) asserted that conceptualizations of advanced practice nursing were limited; particular gaps were the lack of clear distinctions between the expert practice of experienced nurses and of APNs, as well as the lack of nursing theories to address such levels of practice. The authors noted that, although the literature on expert nursing is mostly focused on expertise as it unfolds in the context of relationships, the literature on advanced practice nursing seems to focus more on expertise as “skills acquisition and critical thinking abilities.” According to Oberle and Allen (2001) , any conceptualization of advanced practice nursing should be embedded in a conceptual understanding of nursing, so the authors first proposed a conceptualization of nursing practice. They refer to practice by the term praxis, which captures
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the values-oriented, reflective, and creative nature of the work of nurses. They conceive of
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  • Winter '17
  • Nursing, advanced practice nursing

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