socialpschobjectives-CH 3,4

O consistency information information about the

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o Consistency Information- Information about the extent to which the behavior between one actor and one stimulus is the same across time and circumstances => does the person usually treat/act this way even in different circumstances? People rely mostly on consistency and distinctiveness information when forming attributions Low consensus + low distinctiveness + high consistency = internal attribution High consensus + high distinctiveness + high consistency = external attribution Low consistency (we cannot make a clear internal or external attribution) = situational attribution (assumes something unusual is going on in these circumstances)
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9. Define correspondence bias and provide an empirical example. Correspondence bias- tendency to infer that people’s behavior corresponds to their disposition (personality) Jones & Harris’s study in which even when people knew an authors stance towards an essay topic was externally caused (they were told what they had to write about), participants assumed that when what they read reflected how they author really felt about a given topic => they all made internal attribution for the authors behavior 10. Discuss the role of perceptual salience in creating correspondence bias. Perceptual salience helps create correspondence bias because people, not the situation, have perceptual salience (the seeming of importance of info that is the focus of people’s attention) for us; we pay attention to them, and we tend to think that they alone are the cause for their behavior. Because we are so focused on the individual person we are far more likely to not take into account or discard other situational factors that may offer insight into the person’s behavior. 11. Define the actor/observer difference and its relationship to the correspondence bias.  Explain the role of perceptual salience and information availability in creating the  actor/observer difference. Actor/Observer Difference- The tendency to see other people’s behavior as dispositionally caused but focusing more on the role of situational factors when explaining one’s own behavior Because what is perceptually salient to us is other people, objects, and the events that unfold, we don’t pay as much attention to ourselves. So, when the actor and the observer think about what caused a given behavior they are swayed by the information that is most salient and noticeable to them: the actor for the observer and the situation for the actor 12. Identify self-serving attributions for success and for failure. Discuss three reasons why  people make self-serving attributions. Self-serving attributions for success and failure include taking credit for our own successes by making internal attributions (I did well on the test because im smart) but blaming others or the situation by making external attributions for our failures (I got an F on the test because it was a poorly worded test) Three reasons for self-serving attributes: o
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