Exercise induced asthma asthma attack triggered by

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The same allergen can also trigger an asthmatic attack. Exercise-Induced Asthma - Asthma attack triggered by exercise Nocturnal Asthma - Asthma exacerbation during sleep. Inducers of Asthma: 1) Respiratory infection 2) Allergens 3) Exercise 4) Cold Air 5) Ozone 6) Occupational Stimuli 7) Emotional Stress 8) GERD Avoiding inducers remains an important step to decrease the occurrence and severity of asthma attacks. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - A group of respiratory disorders characterized by progressive airway tissue degeneration and obstruction. 1) Chronic Bronchitis excessive tracheobroncial secretion of mucus with cough; characterized by inflammation and obstruction, repeated infections, and chronic coughing a) Constant irritation from smoking of exposure to irritants irreversible and progressive bronchitis. i) Inflamed and swollen mucosa ii) Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of mucus glands ↑secretions iii) ↓ ciliated epithelium iv) Fibrosis and thickening of bronchial walls secretions pool v) Low oxygen levels 1. Cyanosis may occur “blue bloater” (low oxygen levels, cyanosis, edema) vi) Severe dyspnea, fatigue nutrition, communication, and daily activity affected. vii) Pulmonary hypertension / cor pulmonale common b) Major Cause of COPD Smoking i) 15% of smokers develop COPD ii) 90% of the patients with COPD are smokers c) Manifestations: i) Productive cough (constant) 1. Rhonchi and cough (worsen in morning) ii) Thick / purulent secretions iii) Tachypnea iv) SOB v) Hypoxia / Hypercapnia vi) Secondary polycythemia
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Higher Diploma in Pharmaceutical Dispensing Department of Health Sciences Human Pathophysiology By Dr. Ita FUNG Respiratory System Page 5 vii) Severe weight loss viii) Signs of cor pulmonale as vascular damage and pulmonary hypertension progress d) Management: i) Expectorants ii) Bronchodilators iii) Postural drainage / percussion removal of excessive mucus iv) Low-flow oxygen v) Nutritional supplements 2) Emphysema loss of elasticity of the alveolar sac permanently inflated alveolar sacs a) Factions leading to tissue destruction in the alveoli: i) Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency 1. Alpha1-antitrypsin inhibits proteases, which are secreted by neutrophils during inflammation 2. Elastase is one of the proteases. 3. Cigarettes number of neutrophil in the alveolia and effect of alpha1-antitrypsin b) Causes: i) Genetic factors ii) Cigarette smoking c) Manifestations: i) Dyspnea on exertion, which may progresses to marked dyspnea at rest ii) Hyperventilation with prolonged expiratory phase iii) Use of accessory muscle iv) Barrel chest (due to hyperinflation) v) Anorexia vi) Fatigue vii) Clubbed fingers viii) Secondary polycythemia (compensatory mechanism) d) Management i) Smoking cessation ii) Avoid respiratory irritants iii) Caution of respiratory infections iv) Pulmonary rehabilitation appropriate exercise and facilitate breathing v) Breathing techniques to maximize expiration and ventilation with less energy vi) Drugs: 1. Immunizations 2. Bronchodilators 3. Antibiotics 4. Oxygen therapy vii)
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  • Winter '16
  • allergic asthma, Pharmaceutical Dispensing, Higher Diploma in Pharmaceutical Dispensing, Dr. Ita FUNG

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