§ Stage 1 (age 6 to 8) : appreciate differences in perspective but think it is due to differences in access to information § Stage 2 (age 8 to 10): recognize differences in point of view § Stage 3 (age 10 to 12): systematically compare different points of view § Stage 4 (age 12+): understand others’ perspective by comparing it to the “generalized other”
PSYC7: Developmental Foundations, Fall 2014 p. 12 Professor Emily Blumenthal 19. What is the hostile attribution bias? How has it been studies in children? The hostile attribution bias is the tendency to attribute negative and hostile intentions to another person’s ambiguous (or neutral) act. This has been studied by giving children scenarios in which an actor performs an ambiguous act that negatively affects the child (e.g. bumping into a table on which the child is building a puzzle). The experimenter asks the child what happened and why the person did what s/he did. Highly aggressive children see behavior as intentionally hostile. This attribution has a cascading (negative) effect on development. 20. Describe how children’s responses to challenges, and children’s theories of intelligence might impact developmental outcomes. Some children seek out challenge (e.g. given a choice of solving a puzzle that they previously were successful at solving versus one which they had failed to solve). 21. Describe innate predispositions that children may possess. According to the ethological perspective, how do these predispositions impact development? • Innate preference for faces and social stimuli sets infants up for social interaction (much of learning from facial expression and eye gaze). • Play preferences for males and females; these early preferences set up later development. • See development as an experience-expectant process. 22. What are the Big Five factors of personality? The Big Five Personality Traits: are five broad trait factors have been identified by researchers. These traits are seen as comprising personality at all stages of life, in a variety of populations across the globe. They include: 1. openness : a level of curiosity about and interest in new experiences 2. conscientiousness : tendencies to be organized and responsible 3. extraversion : how outgoing or shy a person is 4. agreeableness : how easygoing and helpful a person tends to be 5. neuroticism : the degree to which a person is moody, anxious, and self-critical 23. Discuss the four different ways adults can develop generativity. 1. biological generativity : adults conceive and give birth to an infant 2. parental generativity : adults provide nurturance and guidance to children 3. work generativity : adults develop skills that are passed down to others 4. cultural generativity : adults create, renovate, or conserve some aspect of culture that ultimately survives 24. What can we safely say about the stability and change issue of personality development? Some personality characteristics are disposed to significant change throughout the life span, whereas others are fairly stable. Some people experience recurrent crises and change a great deal over the life course, whereas others have more stable, continuous lives and change far less.
PSYC7: Developmental Foundations, Fall 2014 p. 13
- Fall '14
- Psychology, Emily Blumenthal