National campaign to mobilize the enthusiasm of the

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: national campaign to mobilize the enthusiasm of the peasants c. Why did the great leap forward fail? Manpower cannot substitute for investment and technology Mao’s belief that human willpower alone could bring economic growth was mistaken Targets not techniques There was no planning – simply targets were issued without any advice about how to achieve them Propaganda not statistics Page 5
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Nobody dared contradict Mao or admit failure. Anyone who questioned spurious success was denounced as a ‘bourgeois reactionary’. Confined by the following 2 factors: Drought and floods - The Yangzi River dried up in 1960, and in the same year there were devastating floods in the south Soviet withdrawal - In 1960, Mao quarreled with Khrushchev over ideology, as a result of which the Soviet experts were recalled – half of China’s Soviet-run industrial plants had to close down d. The third front It was a massive industrial development by China in its interior starting in 1964. It involved large-scale investment in national defense, technology, basic industries (including manufacturing, mining, metal, and electricity), transportation and other infrastructures investments The Third Front region covers 13 provinces and autonomous regions with its core area in the Northwest (including Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia and Qinghai) and Southwest (including Sichuan, Chongqing, Yunnan and Guizhou) It was motivated by national defense considerations, after the Sino- Soviet split in 1965 and the escalation of the Vietnam War. Mao was concerned that the Soviet Union would use nuclear bomb against China. The area of the Third Front is the hardest part of China for any invading foreign power to access. During the Sino-Japanese War of 1937-45, it remained unconquered e. The Beijing underground city The Beijing Underground City, also known as Dixia Cheng, is the predecessor of the civil air defense works, founded in 1969. It is a bomb shelter comprising a network of tunnels located beneath Beijing The Beijing underground city project, which lasted ten years, completed in 1979. Divided into three fortifications District, and to the city from all sides, formed the people’s air defense tunnel network scale. The tunnels comprising Dixia Cheng run beneath Beijing’s city center, covering an area of 85 square kilometers (33 sq mi) 8 to 18 meters (26–59 ft) under the surface. In 1969, the Beijing underground city was built by Chinese chairman Mao Zedong. The underground city is 8 meters from the ground, the depth of up to more then ten meters, tunnels are two meters wide, 30 kilometers in length, can accommodate more than 30 million people. The tunnels were built by more than 300,000 local citizens, including school children 4. The chaos of the cultural revolution (1966 – 1976) a. Why did Mao launch the cultural revolution?
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  • Winter '14
  • Mao Zedong, People's Republic of China, Deng Xiaoping, Cultural Revolution, Great Leap

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