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and search for creative frame-breaking solutions. Effective structural leadership adds value bycreating needed bridges among unconnected parties. Effective processual leadership encouragestrust and turns potentially destructive conflict into constructive interactions.Activity 3DWith increasing size and geographic dispersion, the task of transdisciplinary leadership becomes more complex, making the need for multiple leaders with different skills and network relationships a distinct possibility. While informal, centralized leadership may be sufficient for small, co-located teams, multiple leaders who serve as brokers to connect more disparate and unconnected groups of researchers are needed for larger projects. Shared decision making principles, close coordination, mutual respect, and highly refined process skills are vital for these leaders to sustain effective transdisciplinary collaborations.To date, transdisciplinary leadership is mentioned briefly in descriptive studies of such projectsThe model of transdisciplinary leadership presented here has drawn on that descriptive research, but also has incorporated empirical research on collaboration and network studies from other arenas. Both social-network analyses and close observational examination of leaders’ behaviourin transdisciplinary efforts is needed to strengthen understanding of the distinctive requirements for leaders in these contexts. Social-network studies of how transdisciplinary networks evolve over time could provide promising insights into the structural patterns that contribute to innovative transdisciplinary outcomes. Examination of whether transformation leadership behaviors are suitable for bridging disciplinary boundaries would also be useful as would obtaining leaders’ and followers’ perceptions of how they transcended critical differences in paradigms, assumptions, theories, and methods. Understanding what motivates researchers to engage in transdisciplinary research would also be useful, because motivations can be both internal and external. Federal funders can promote such efforts through specific grant structures; academic institutions can create conducive or prohibitive cultures for transdisciplinary research; and individual researchers may have personal propensities and training that motivates them to pursue such projects. Most likely, however, it is the combination of personal motivation, institutional support, and external funding that will enable transdisciplinary efforts to thrive.Still, individual researchers need to weight the costs and benefits of transdisciplinary work for themselves. Without facilitative leadership, potential participants may judge the likelihood of such payoffs to be slim.Skills and knowledge ActivityMobile computing has enabled the Axis bank to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage overthe other banks. Through innovation, the bank has been on the front line in the application ofelectronics that offer more and better customer experiences. For instance, the use of social apps and