complete view of the subjects in order to answer the research- and sub questions. The Quantitative research uses the subjects of the Lite rature study’s summary to form a set of questions for a questionnaire. The Qualitative research differs from this approach and consists of non-scripted conversations that the author had with organization members. The strength of the conceptual model is that it consists of specific and complete information on pre- defined subjects (Literature study), includes the questions and answers from a questionnaire (Quantitative research) and brings additional information from interviews (Qualitative research).
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14 2. Literature review on Holacracy The purpose of this chapter is to research the subjects ‘ Holacracy ’ , ‘ Application software ’ and ‘Identity & Access Management’ using a deductive approach. This approach is used to inform what the subjects are about, how they are used and implemented and what its advantages and disadvantages are. Each sub chapter includes a reflection on the information to provide perspective and is used in the summary of the literature review. At the basis of the literature review are the literature types described by Sharp et al. (2002) and Saunders et al. (2009) that consist of articles in academic and professional journals, books, white papers and websites. Using a variety of literature types contributes to finding more relevant sources with information on each subject despite the limited availability of literature on Holacracy. 2.1 Origin of Holacracy In 2001, Brian Robertson founded a start-up application software company called Ternary Software that offered organizations “to bring their software to market using highly- effective “lean” processes” (Robertson, 2015). In 2003, the company grew bigger and faced the structural challenges in its processes and decision- making. From his perspective as a CEO and a leader, Robertson had questions about the way people worked together and wondered how they could perform in the most effective and efficient way possible. To tackle these challenges, Robertson used different trial and error approaches for the members in the organization, turning his organization into a laboratory for testing organizational and cultural changes. Among the first changes that were incorporated in his organization were the principles and the practices of Agile software development (Beck et. al, 2001), Lean (Poppendieck & Poppendieck, 2003) and Sociocracy (Endenburg, 2002). These changes ensured Robertson that every member in the organization provided their colleagues with valuable feedback, which evolved the organization in the areas of autonomy, purpose-orientation and rapid decision-making. By including autonomy, purpose-orientation and rapid decision-making in the organization’s structure, processes and rules, Robertson created his first management system that he called “The Ternary Way”. In 2006, after abandoning parts of the management system of Sociocracy, Robertson renamed his new management system ‘ Holacracy ’ .
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- Spring '19
- Dhr. Joe Goldiamond
- Management, Qualitative Research