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Corn Flakes Rice Crispies All-Bran Frosted Mini Wheats Sugar Frosted Corn Flakes Sugar 1% 3% 5% 7% 19% 26% 41% Sodium (mg) 5 270 290 170 310 10 240 oShredded Wheat is better choiceSoft Drinks / Pop•Plus cola: functional food, added minerals and vitaminsoAbout 1/4 cup sucrose (pure sugar) in one can Coca-ColaGranola Bars•Different forms of added sugar:oHigh maltose corn syrup, sugar, fructose, maltodextrin, vegetable glycerin, barley malt extractoBrown rice syrup, dried cane syrup, cane syrup, honey, molassesoGranola, glucose, crisp rice, dried sweetened cranberry pieces, fructose-glucose, glucose solids, invert sugar, glycerin, sorbitol•No widely accepted definition for sugar, can refer to carbs and not just sucroseSugar as a Poison•Case made by Robert Lustig•Yankee stadium expanded in 1920s (82 000), then reduced in 1976 when remodelled to 54 000 seatsoHad to change seats because people larger waist size and could not fitEffect of Sugar on Teeth•S. mutanspresent in mouth, convert sugar --> lactic acid which eats away and dissolves tooth material (enamel)oCreates cavities and problems (creates about 80-90% of mouth cavities)oLollipops 98% sucrose, permits effect to take place directly, Life Savers•By modifying s. mutans so that conversion is blocked, prevent these problemsoGenetically modified bacterium, remove gene responsible for conversion•Eating more sugar does not necessarily result in more cavities, but correlationConsiderations Sugar in Diet•Paper from Boston suggesting link between fructose-rich beverage & Gout risks in womenoDisease with defective uric acid metabolism, causing arthritisoMost commonly affects feet, ankles, knees, hands, wrists and elbows•Excess fructose causes increase in uric acid, causing inflammation of joints/goutfind more resources at oneclass.comfind more resources at oneclass.com
oFructose --> uric acid conversionStudy•During 22 year follow-up, 778 confirmed cases of gout documentedoSignificant number of peopleoCompared with consumption of < 1 serving/month of sugar-sweetened soda, risk was 1.74 with consumption of 1 serving/dayo2.4 for 2+ servings per day•Corresponding relative risks for orange juice = 1.41•Absolute risk differences corresponding to these relative risks: 36 (would happen anyway) and 68 cases for 100 000 person per year for sugar-sweetened soda•Diet soft drinks were not associated with increased risks of goutoGlucose sweetened drinks also do not contribute to gout•Results: assuming 20 years of consumption, 1-2 added cases of gout per 100 person because of drinking sugar sodasoContribution to risk of gout likely modest(increased chance)Effects of Too Much Sugar in Diet•40% of people aged 55-64 have opaque areas (cataracts)o90% of people aged 75-84•Sometimes called sugar cataracts or diabetes cataracts, associated with difficulty processing sugarsoDue to particles in lens that influence the diffusion of light rays (clouded lens)•Treatment: operation, replace lens (small)o