Other boys live in neighborhoods that are not

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OTHER BOYS LIVE IN NEIGHBORHOODS THAT ARE NOT ORGANIZED AROUND DELINQUENT VALUES. IN THESE NEIGHBORHOODS YOUTH WHOSE LEGITIMATE OPPORTUNITIES ARE BLOCKED CAN NOT LEARN ILLEGITIMATE OPPORTUNITIES.
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THEY BECOME FRUSTRATED. FRUSTRATION LEADS TO AGGRESSION. HENCE GANGS IN THESE NEIGHBORHOOD ENGAGE IN CONFLICT BEHAVIORS THIRD TYPE OF GANG RETREATIST GANG –YOUTH WHO HAD OPPORTUNITIES IN THE LEGITIMATE AND ILLEGITIMATE OPPORTUNITY STRUCTURES BUT FAILED AT BOTH RESORTED TO DRUG USE AND ALCOHOLISM –NOTE SIMILARITY TO MERTON’S RETREATISM CATEGORY MESSNER AND ROSENFELD: INSTITUTIONAL ANOMIE TAKES THE ‘OTHER ROAD’ GOES BACK TO WHAT THEY CLAIM WAS THE REAL CONTRIBUTION OF MERTON CRITIQUE OF AMERICA’S EMPHASIS ON ECONOMIC GOALS American Society: Failure is not an option pressure for achievement individualism competition CRIME CAUSED BY OVEREMPHASIS ON ECONOMIC INSTITUTION AND DEEMPHASIS ON OTHER INSTITUTIONS THAT SHOULD REGULATE BEHAVIOR FOCUSES ON THE EFFECT ON SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS LIKE EDUCATION AND FAMILY Discussion CAN YOU GIVE SOME EXAMPLES OF HOW AMERICA PROMOTES ECONOMIC GOALS? THEREFORE: The pressure to succeed may force an individual to behave illegitimately, especially in a culture that mainly promotes goals to achieve money but not legitimate means of achieving those goals. General strain theory ENTER ROBERT AGNEW AND HIS GENERAL STRAIN THEORY THERE ARE THREE TYPES OF STRAINS 1. Strain as the failure to achieve positively valued goals 2. Strain as the presentation of negative stimuli 3. Strain as the removal of positively valued stimuli 1. Types of strain FAILURE TO ACHIEVE GOAL (INCLUDING BUT NOT NECESSARILY ECONOMIC GOAL) Examples: Rejection from a university Poor grade on an exam 2. Types of strain REMOVAL OF POSITIVE STIMULUS OR LOSING SOMETHING THAT IS VALUED Examples: Breaking up from a romantic relationship Changing schools/moving 3. Types of strain PRESENTATION OF NEGATIVE STIMULUS
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Examples: Being treated poorly (and not being able to avoid the negative stimulus) parents separation or divorce General Strain and negative emotional states THE THREE SOURCES OF STRAIN GENERATE NEGATIVE EMOTIONAL STATES: ANGER DEPRESSION FRUSTRATION CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH STRAIN WILL PRODUCE CRIME STRAIN IS SEEN AS UNJUST STRAIN IS HIGH IN MAGNITUDE STRAIN IS LOW IN SOCIAL CONTROL STRAIN CREATES PRESSURE OR INCENTIVE FOR CRIME STRAIN IS SEEN AS UNJUST : Undeserved Disrespectful Inconsiderate Strain seen as unjust is more likely to lead to crime when it creates anger. STRAIN IS HIGH IN MAGNITUDE: Duration/frequency Recency Centrality Strain high in magnitude decreases the ability to cope with strain, produces anger and then is most likely to lead to crime. STRAIN IS LOW IN SOCIAL CONTROL: Dysfunctional parenting Parental rejection Strain related or caused by low social control reduces ability to cope in noncriminal ways. STRAIN CREATES PRESSURE OR INCENTIVE FOR CRIME Child abuse Bullying/teasing Strain increases beliefs favorable to crime.
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