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ECE _ DSST Organizational Behavior

When initial positions have been exchanged both

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Unformatted text preview: When initial positions have been exchanged , both parties will clarify and justify their original demands, which make up the third step of the negotiation process. This step shouldn’t be confrontational. This should be seen as an opportunity for educating and informing each other on the issues, why they’re important, and how each arrived at their initial demands. This is the point where it might be wise to provide the other party with any documentation that helps support a position The fourth stage of the negotiation process involves bargaining and problem-solving. The essence of the negotiation process is the actual give-and-take in trying to hash out an agreement. Concessions will undoubtedly need to be made by both parties. The final step in the negotiation process is formalizing the agreement that has been worked out and developing any procedures necessary for implementation and monitoring. For major negotiations such as labor-management negotiations or negotiating a job offer for a senior management position, this stage will require laying out the specifics in a formal contract. For minor negotiations, closure of the negotiation process is nothing more formal that a handshake. A mediator is a neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning and persuasion, suggesting alternatives, and the like. Mediators are widely used in labor-management negotiations and in civil court disputes. Although the overall effectiveness of mediated negotiations is fairly impressive, the conflicting parties must be motivated to bargain and resolve their conflict. Additionally, conflict intensity can’t be too high; mediation is most effective under moderate levels of conflict An arbitrator is a third party with the authority to dictate an agreement. Arbitration can be voluntary or forced on the parties by law or contract. The authority of the arbitrator varies according to the rules set by the negotiators. For instance, the arbitrator might be limited to choosing one of the negotiator’s last offers or to suggesting an agreement point that is nonbinding, or free to choose and make any judgment he or she wishes. A plus of arbitration over mediation is that it always results in a settlement. The key thing is, an arbitrator has authority to force a settlement, whereas a mediator simply facilitates discussion and advises towards a settlement. A conciliator is a trusted third party who provides an informal communication link between the negotiator and the opponent. Conciliation is used extensively in international, labor, family, and community disputes. Comparing its effectiveness to mediation has proven difficult because the two overlap a great deal. In practice, conciliators typically act as more than mere communication conduits. They also engage in fact-finding, interpreting messages, and persuading disputants to develop agreements....
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