phase, working phase, termination phase and the follow-up. Each phase was mentioned to be very important in the counselling process without which successful counselling may not be achieved. SELF-ASSESSMENT EXERCISE 1. List those things that need careful consideration when setting up the Counselling Room to meet the client. 2. Write down what you could say to a client when the session is nearing an end? 6.0 TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1, What is counselling process? 2, Write short notes on the following:- a, Initial phase b, Working phase c, Termination stage 3, Discuss the important of follow-up phase in counselling
76 7.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS Margret, H (1996). Counselling Skills. Addison Wesley Longman Limited Edinburgh House, Harlow Essex CM20 2JE, England. Okabia O. C (1992). Practicum in Counselling: Training and Supervision. Hallman Publishers, P. O. Box 227, Nsukka.
7 7 UNIT 3 TECHNIQUES OF COUNSELLING CONTENTS 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Objectives 3.0 Main Content 3.1 Techniques in Counselling 4.0 Conclusion 5.0 Summary Self Assessment Exercise 6.0 Tutor Marked Assignment 7.0 References/Further Readings 1.0 INTRODUCTION Technique can be defined as methods or ways of doing something or performing an act efficiently. Another word which carries similar meaning with technique is strategy that the Counsellor uses in a counselling encounter. Techniques are usefully acquired through training by the professional Counsellor to assist their clients understand and solve their daily problems. It is therefore basic that the acquisition and use of techniques in counselling helps to distinguish a professional Counsellor from someone who is not trained but who tries to practice counselling. 2.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this Unit, you should be able to: 1. State the meaning of Techniques in Counselling. 2. Mention five examples of Counselling techniques. 3. Mention at least one example on how each stated Counselling technique can be applied. 3.0 MAIN CONTENT 3.1 Techniques in Counselling There are as many examples of Counselling technique as there are approaches or theories in Counselling. Examples of some of the approaches are psychoanalysis, Behaviour modification, Rational
78 Emotive Therapy, Transactional Analysis, Gestalt, Logo therapy, Reality Impressive, Client-cantered, Adlerian and Trait and Factor. While each of these approaches is unique and therefore distinguishable from the others, there still exists relationship among them because they are all tended towards helping the clients to understand himself and lead a well adjusted life. It is therefore the technique in each of the approaches that often shows which of the approaches is being employed in practice. However, there are some techniques that cut across some counselling approaches. Generally, examples of counselling techniques are listening, responding, emphasizing, questioning, prodding, interpretation, reflection, confronting, restatement, probing, self-disclosure, catharsis, assuring, immediacy, encouraging, clarifying, concretising, summarising, homework, silence homework, catharses and exploring some of the major techniques are discussed below:
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