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Lecture8 - Neurons and the Nervous System

Playing with two systems learning to control

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Playing with two systems – learning to control “uncontrollable” nervous system Short-term, to either fight or flight for emergencies Cannot stay in this state for very long Stress Body cannot stay under stress for long Sympathetic nervous system for prolonged time Somatic NS – make commands that effect peripheral NS Autonomic NS Touching a hot iron Sensory – detect the outer world Interneurons – send excitatory signals to motor neurons Motor neurons – control the body’s reactions Autonomic NS does it all by itself Autonomic + Somatic NS Carrying a hot casserole dish Autonomic system tries to send the same message as from “hot iron” Conscious, somatic system, sends inhibitory signals to stop you from dropping the  casserole dish Fighting between muscles Neurons
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Fire action potential/may not fire at all Excitatory signal – tell other neurons to fire also Inhibitory signal – not to fire (shut down other neurons) Convergence of mixed signals with the casserole pot Send information to other neurons Receiving neuron Gets mix of firing signals, not fire signals, gets added together in the nucleus and makes  decision  Electrochemical signals Positive charge vs negative charge Myelin sheath Fatty layer of tissue made by Schwann cells Breaks called nodes of Ranvier “plastic coating” to prevent short circuiting and to protect transmission of signal Giant squid Electrical charge to nucleus and found that after sending big enough charge (action  potential) then reaction would be triggered down axon Global signal vs local signal Neurons cont’d Resting membrane potential – difference between inside and outside charge of cell
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Action potential – depolarization of cell through movement of Na+ and K- 
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