Evaluate alternative process designs that is create

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Evaluate alternative process designs. That is, create process or value stream maps (sometimes called future state maps) that describe how the process can best achieve customer and organizational objectives. 4. Identify and define appropriate performance measures for the process. 5. Select the appropriate equipment and technology. 6. Develop an implementation plan to introduce the new or revised process design. This includes developing process performance criteria and standards to monitor and control the process. A process map (flowchart) describes the sequence of all process activities and tasks necessary to create and deliver a desired output or outcome. It documents how work either is, or should be, accomplished and how the transformation process creates value. We usually first develop a “baseline” map of how the current process operates in order to under- stand it and identify improvements for redesign. A process boundary is the beginning or end of a process. The value stream refers to all value-added activities involved in designing, producing, and delivering goods and services to customers. Management strategies to improve process designs usually focus on one or more of the following : increasing revenue by improving process efficiency in creating goods and services and delivery of the customer benefit package; increasing agility by improving flexibility and response to changes in demand and customer expectations; increasing product and/or service quality by reducing defects, mistakes, failures, or service upsets; decreasing costs through better technology or elimination of non-value-added activities; decreasing process flow time by reducing waiting time or speeding up movement through the process and value chain; decreasing the carbon footprint of the task, activity, process, and/or value chain. Reengineering has been defined as “the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service, and speed.”
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Utilization is the fraction of time a workstation or individual is busy over the long run. It is difficult to achieve 100 percent utilization. For example, utilization in most job shops ranges from 65 to 90 percent. In flow shops, it might be between 80 to 95 percent, and for most continuous flow processes, above 95 percent. Job shops require frequent machine changeovers and delays, whereas flow shops and continuous flow processes keep equipment more fully utilized. Service facilities have a greater range of resource utilization. Movie theaters, for example, average 5 to 20 percent utilization when seat utilization is computed over the entire week. Similar comments apply to hotels, airlines, and other services. The average number of entities completed per unit time—the output rate—from a process is called throughput.
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