Some organizations hire ethics officers to

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policies for ethical decision making. Some organizations hire ethics officers to specifically focus on this area of the business. Out of four hundred companies surveyed, 48 percent had an ethics officer, who reported to either the CEO or the HR executive. According to Steve Miranda, chief human resources officer for the Society for Human Resource Management ( SHRM), “[the presence of an ethics officer] provides a high-level individual with positional authority who can ensure that policies, practices, and guidelines are effectively communicated across the organization.” 4.3.4 HRM Strategies The terms ‘strategic HRM’ and ‘HR strategy’ are often used interchangeably, but a distinction can be made between them. Strategic HRM can be regarded as a general approach to the strategic management of human resources in accordance with the intentions of the organization on the future direction it wants to take. What emerges from this process is a stream of decisions over time, which form the pattern adopted by the organization for managing its human resources and define the areas in which specific HR strategies need to be developed. HR strategies will focus on the specific intentions of the organization on what needs to be done and what needs to be changed. This lesson starts by defining what HR strategies are and what they set out to do, continues with descriptions of different types of strategy with examples, and concludes with a list of the criteria for an effective strategy. HR Strategies Definition HR strategies set out what the organization intends to do about its human resource management policies and practices, and how they should be integrated with the business strategy and each other. They are described by Dyer and Reeves
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33 (1995) as ‘internally consistent bundles of human resource practices’, and in the words of Peter Boxall (1996) they provide ‘a framework of critical ends and means’. The purpose of HR strategies is to guide development and implementation programmes. They provide a means of communicating to all concerned the intentions of the organization about how its human resources will be managed. They enable the organization to measure progress and evaluate outcomes against objectives. Types of HR Strategies Because all organizations are different, all HR strategies are different. There is no such thing as a set of standard characteristics. Research into HR strategy conducted by Armstrong and Long (1994) and Armstrong and Baron (2002) revealed many variations. Some strategies are simply very general declarations of intent. Others go into much more detail. But two basic types of HR strategies can be identified. These are: 1. Overarching strategies ; and 2. Specific strategies relating to the different aspects of human resource management.
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