Depression is a worldwide phenomena that varies from culture to culture but the

Depression is a worldwide phenomena that varies from

This preview shows page 15 - 20 out of 27 pages.

Depression is a worldwide phenomena that varies from culture to culture, but the experience of symptoms differs For example, non-Westerners report more physical (rather than psychological) symptoms As cultures become more Western, symptoms shift SOCIOCULTURAL VIEW UNIPOLAR DEPRESSION How does social support relate to depression? The availability of social support seems to influence the likelihood of depression Rates of depression vary based on marital status Interpersonal conflict may be a factor Isolation and lack of intimacy also are key factors Research shows that depressed people who lack social support remain depressed longer than those who have a supportive spouse or warm friendships SOCIOCULTURAL VIEW
Image of page 15
2/7/2017 16
Image of page 16
2/7/2017 17 BIPOLAR DISORDER SYMPTOMS BIPOLAR DISORDER Criteria 1: Manic episode Three or more symptoms of mania lasting one week or more In extreme cases, symptoms are psychotic Criteria 2: History of mania If currently experiencing hypomania or depression DIAGNOSING BIPOLAR DISORDER Three kinds of bipolar disorder: 1. Bipolar I disorder Full manic episodes Major depressive episode is not a requirement Most sufferers experience an alternation of episodes Some experience mixed episodes 2. Bipolar II disorder Hypomanic episodes Major depressive episode is a requirement DIAGNOSING
Image of page 17
2/7/2017 18 BIPOLAR DISORDER Three kinds of bipolar disorder: 3. Cyclothymic Disorder If a person experiences numerous episodes of hypomania for at least two years and mild depressive symptoms, a diagnosis of cyclothymic disorder is appropriate ***Mania defines the type of bipolar disorder *** !Differentiated by severity and duration of mania! DIAGNOSING BIPOLAR DISORDER Without treatment, the mood episodes tend to recur for people with either type of bipolar disorder Rapid cycle : If people experience four or more episodes within a one-year period, their disorder is further classified as rapid cycling Seasonal: If their episodes vary with the seasons, their disorder is further classified as seasonal DIAGNOSING
Image of page 18
2/7/2017 19 BIPOLAR DISORDER Between 1 and 1.5% of adults in the world suffer from a bipolar disorder at any given time Cyclothymic disorder affects 0.4% of the population The disorders are equally common in women and men Women may experience more depressive and fewer manic episodes than men Rapid cycling is more common in women The prevalence of the disorders is the same across socioeconomic classes and ethnic groups The Onset usually occurs between 15 and 44 years of age In most cases, the manic and depressive episodes eventually subside, only to recur at a later time Generally, when episodes recur, the intervening periods of normality grow shorter and shorter PREVALENCE BIPOLAR DISORDER Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the search for the cause of bipolar disorders made little progress More recently, biological research has produced some promising clues New insights have come from research into NT activity, ion activity, and genetic factors CAUSES
Image of page 19
Image of page 20

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 27 pages?

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes