Targets are given per planetary boundary for the

  • No School
  • AA 1
  • 110

This preview shows page 35 - 37 out of 110 pages.

Targets are given per planetary boundary for the different approaches of step 3 of the procedure (A, B and C) and the different population developments and ethical principles of step 4. For the impact categories related to the PB of interferences with the nitrogen cycle, a range is given for ethical principles 1 and 4, spanned by the low and high estimates of the ratio of global to China per capita impact of Sandin et al. ( 2015 ) (principles 2 and 3 are not in fl uenced by this ratio (see Eqs. 3 and 4 in Sandin et al. ( 2015 ))). A negative value implies that impact is allowed to increase Will Clothing Be Sustainable? Clarifying Sustainable Fashion 29
Image of page 35
in setting targets for reducing the impact per garment, which is a tangible and common level when working with interventions for impact reduction (as further elaborated on in Sect. 4 ). The procedure cannot yet, however, provide input to reduction targets for all the important environmental challenges of the clothing sector, for example toxicity issues. This is both because all the nine planetary boundaries have not yet been quanti fi ed and because there is a need to further research the connection between the planetary boundaries and the metrics at which environmental impact is quanti fi ed in fi rms and sectors (e.g. speci fi c metrics of LCA impact categories). Furthermore, the results in Tables 11 , 12 and 13 indicate that impact-reduction targets, derived using the planetary boundary framework, depend heavily on the chosen ethical principles in steps 3 and 4, the estimated global population in 2050 [we tested the low and high estimates of UN ( 2015a )] and the geographical context. This underlines the inherent value-based choices one by necessity has to make when dividing a fi nite impact space between different entities having a claim for that space, as well as the inherent uncertainties involved when speculating about the future (in this case, the global and national populations in 2050). It is important to once again stress that connecting the planetary boundaries with certain impact categories is dif fi cult, and it can be questioned if some global plan- etary boundaries (e.g. the one for freshwater use) can (yet) guide impact-reduction efforts and target-setting, without consideration of local or regional geographical parameters, such as the water stress in speci fi c water basins. In the LCA context described in Sect. 2 , only four impact-reduction targets were deemed feasible to connect to speci fi c impact categories. In doing this, we chose to use ethical principle A in step 3 and ethical principle 1 in step 4 which are, albeit, value-based choices, perhaps the least controversial ones. Employing the same interpretation for the results in Tables 11 , 12 and 13 yields the results of Table 14 . The freshwater consumption target is not derived using the procedure of Sandin et al. ( 2015 ), but is the guidance on maximum acceptable water withdrawal at the basin level provided by Steffen et al. ( 2015 ).
Image of page 36
Image of page 37

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 110 pages?

  • Fall '19
  • Sustainable fashion, Sandra Roos

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors