A pericarditis neetdnb pattern b peristent

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A) PERICARDITIS (NEET/DNB PATTERN) B) PERISTENT HYPERKALEMIA C) UREMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY D) SEVERE VOLUME OVERLOAD ANS:D 313
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MOST COMMON CAUSE OF DEATH IN DIALYSIS PATIENT- (NEET/DNB PATTERN) A) CARDIOVASCULAR B) INFECTION C) MALIGNANCY D) ANEMIA ANS. IS ‘A’ I.E., CARDIOVASCULAR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IS THE MOST COMMON CAUSE OF DEATH AMONE PATIENTS WITH - CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE (ESRD) - RENAL REPLACEMENT THERAPY - LONG TERM DIALYSIS 314
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MOST COMMON CAUSE OF DEATH IN PATIENTS ON DIALYSIS FOR ACUTE RENAL FAILURE IS – (NBE/DNB PATTERN) A) CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE B) INFECTION C) MALIGNANCY D) ANEMIA ANS. IS ‘B’ I.E., INFECTION THE MOST COMMON CAUSE OF DEATH IN PATIENTS DIALVZED FOR ACUTE RENAL FAILURE IS INFECTION. - INFECTIONS ARE THE MOST COMMON CAUSE OF DEATH IN PATIENTS DIALYZED FOR ACUTE RENAL FAILURE. 315
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MOST COMMON CAUSE OF DEATH IN CHRONIC DIALYSIS PATIENT IS (NBE/DNB PATTERN) A) CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE B) INFECTION C) MALIGNANCY D) ANEMIA ANS. IS ‘A’ I.E., CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE [REF: CECIL MEDICINE: EXPERT CONSULT (ELSEVIER) 2011 P. 820] 316
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BOTH TAKAYASU DISEASE AND POLYARTERITIS NODOSA ARE RARE CAUSE OF RENAL ARTERY STENOSIS. BETWEEN THESE TWO RENAL ARTERY STENOSIS IS RELATIVELY MORE COMMON IN TAKAYASU 'S ARTERITIS. 320
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RENAL ARTERY STENOSIS:- • RENAL ARTERY STENOSIS IS AN IMPORTANT CAUSE OF HYPERTENSION. • IT ACCOUNTS FOR APPROXIMATELY 5% CASES OF HYPERTENION. • THE MECHANISM RESPONSIBLE FOR HYPERTENSION IS INCREASED SECRETION OF RENIN. CAUSES:- • MOST COMMON CAUSE OF RENAL ARTERY STENOSIS IS ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUE OCCLUDING THE RENAL ARTERY. • MOST COMMON CAUSE IN YOUNG IS FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA. 321
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CLINICAL FEATURES: - • RENAL ARTERY STENOSIS COMMONLY PRESENTS WITH HYPERTENSION. • IT IS BIL IN 50% OF CASES. • ABOUT HALF OF THE CASES PRESENTS WITH BRUIT IN THE ABDOMEN OR FLANKS. 322
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DIAGNOSIS • THE SCREENING PROCEDURE OF CHOICE FOR RENAL ARTERY STENOSIS IS GADOLINUM ENHANCED THREE DIMENSIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANC ANGIOGRAPHY'. IT HAS THE BEST SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY AMONG ALL THE SCREENING TESTS. • BEST TEST FOR CONFIRMATORY DIAGNOSIS IS CONTRAST ENHANCED ARTERIOGRAPHY'. 323
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TREATMENT:- • RENAL ARTERY STENOSIS CAN BE TREATED EITHER - MEDICALLY OR - SURGICALLY • TREATMENT IS USUALLY BEGAN MEDICALLY AND IF THE BP IS UNDER CONTROL AND RENAL FUNCTION IS WELL PRESERVED SURGERY IS NOT REQUIRED. 324
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LIDDLE'S SYNDROME IS TYPICALLY ASSOCIATED WITH HYPOKALEMIA AND HYPERTENSION. BARTTER'S SYNDROME AND GITELMAN 'S SYNDROME ARE ALSO ASSOCIATED WITH HYPOKALEMIA BUT WITHOUT HYPERTENSION. 326
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