051309 Introduction to Cognition 605 Two Systems of Thought System1 Fast

051309 introduction to cognition 605 two systems of

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05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 605 Two Systems of Thought System1 Fast, Automatic, Effortless, Associative Difficult to control or modify Can deal with concepts, can be evoked by language Generates impressions of attributes System2 Slower, Serial, Effortful Deliberately controlled Flexible, May be rule-governed Monitors thought and action Monitors System 1 (rather leniently)
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05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 606 Frederick’s Bat & Ball Problem “A bat and a ball cost $1.10 in total. The bat costs $1.00 more than the ball. How much does the ball cost?” Almost everyone says 10 cents….or at least THINKS 10 cents first…. Why?
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05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 607 Frederick’s Bat & Ball Problem Many/most people don’t think quantitatively….System 2 monitors loosely…accepts a plausible judgment that quickly comes to mind $1.10 breaks easily into $1.00 + 10¢ It is plausible (seems about right)
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05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 608 Bat & Ball Problem Many/most people don’t think quantitatively….System 2 monitors loosely…accepts a plausible judgment that quickly comes to mind How do people get to the right answer? Check the second condition: The bat costs $1.00 more than the ball. $1.00 – 10 ¢ $1.00, so its got to be <10 ¢ OR Immediately set up the two equations (x + y = $1.10) (x – y = 1.00 ), 2y=0.10, y=.05
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05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 609 Accessibility influences intuitive judgment Accessibility: Example – tower of blocks Height is accessible Volumeis accessible Area covered if re-arranged is NOT accessible, must be deliberately estimated or determined
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05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 610 Accessibility A B C Impression of height is accessiblefor A and C, but not B. Impression of area is accessible for B, but height is not
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05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 611
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05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 612 Some assessments are automatic What color were the disks? How many big disks were there? How many different sizes of disks were there? Which size was most numerous? Which size was closest to an “average”? What are the ratios of the diameters?
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05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 613 We form impressions without choosing to The role of system 2 would be to pick a parameter and scale….which are less accessible. Area? Radius? Diameter? Inches? Centimeters? Feet? Accessibility is a dimension….a continuum At one end, operations that are completely automatic, rapid, like perception….. At the other end, effortful operations, like counting, calculation of area
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05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 614 What determines accessibility? Perceptual Salience or actual properties of theobject of judgment A B Saliencecan beovercomeby deliberate attention Pay attention to the black letters
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05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 615 R C U L T I G C E K R E S R ! S
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05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 616 attention have parallels in processing of concepts and propositions…in determining accessibility Priming – form, acoustic, semantic Associative activation Stereotypepriming – mention of a familiar social category increases accessiblity of traits Lower thresholds Faster reaction times
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