05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 605 Two Systems of Thought System1 – Fast, Automatic, Effortless, Associative – Difficult to control or modify – Can deal with concepts, can be evoked by language – Generates impressions of attributes System2 – Slower, Serial, Effortful – Deliberately controlled – Flexible, May be rule-governed – Monitors thought and action – Monitors System 1 (rather leniently)
05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 606 Frederick’s Bat & Ball Problem “A bat and a ball cost $1.10 in total. The bat costs $1.00 more than the ball. How much does the ball cost?” Almost everyone says 10 cents….or at least THINKS 10 cents first…. Why?
05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 607 Frederick’s Bat & Ball Problem Many/most people don’t think quantitatively….System 2 monitors loosely…accepts a plausible judgment that quickly comes to mind $1.10 breaks easily into $1.00 + 10¢ It is plausible (seems about right)
05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 608 Bat & Ball Problem Many/most people don’t think quantitatively….System 2 monitors loosely…accepts a plausible judgment that quickly comes to mind How do people get to the right answer? Check the second condition: The bat costs $1.00 more than the ball. $1.00 – 10 ¢ ≠ $1.00, so its got to be <10 ¢ OR Immediately set up the two equations (x + y = $1.10) (x – y = 1.00 ), 2y=0.10, y=.05
05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 609 Accessibility influences intuitive judgment Accessibility: Example – tower of blocks – Height is accessible – Volumeis accessible – Area covered if re-arranged is NOT accessible, must be deliberately estimated or determined
05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 610 Accessibility A B C Impression of height is accessiblefor A and C, but not B. Impression of area is accessible for B, but height is not
05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 611
05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 612 Some assessments are automatic • What color were the disks? • How many big disks were there? • How many different sizes of disks were there? • Which size was most numerous? • Which size was closest to an “average”? • What are the ratios of the diameters?
05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 613 We form impressions without choosing to The role of system 2 would be to pick a parameter and scale….which are less accessible. Area? Radius? Diameter? Inches? Centimeters? Feet? Accessibility is a dimension….a continuum At one end, operations that are completely automatic, rapid, like perception….. At the other end, effortful operations, like counting, calculation of area
05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 614 What determines accessibility? Perceptual Salience or actual properties of theobject of judgment A B Saliencecan beovercomeby deliberate attention Pay attention to the black letters
05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 615 R C U L T I G C E K R E S R ! S
05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 616 attention have parallels in processing of concepts and propositions…in determining accessibility • Priming – form, acoustic, semantic • Associative activation • Stereotypepriming – mention of a familiar social category increases accessiblity of traits • Lower thresholds • Faster reaction times
- Spring '07
- Cognitive Psychology, ognition, se pre ntations