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Myometrium: consist of three layers of smooth muscle fibers that are thickestin the fundus and thinnest in the cervix.
During labor and childbirth, contractions of the myometrium in response to oxytocin from the posterior pituitary help expel the fetus from the uterus. Endometrium: the inner layer of the uterus, Its stratum functionalis layer is shed each month during menstruationThe stratum basalis layer is permanent and give rise to new stratum functionalis after each menstruation. Homologous Structures of the male and female reproductive systemMammary GlandsoFunction in synthesis, secretion, and ejection of Milk (Lactation). oLactationRefers to production, secretion, and ejection of milk from the nipples, a process associated with pregnancy and childbirth. oProductionMilk is carried out by mammary glandsEach mammary gland divides into 15-20 lobules separated by adipose tissueWithin each lobule are small lobules containing the actual glands which product the milk called the alveoli.
oEjectionMilk production in the alveoli move through the secondary tubules and into the mammary ducts, then from there it enters the lactiferous sinuses, then the lactiferous ducts. Each lobe is typically served by a single lactiferous duct, which eventually carries the milk to the surface.oHormonal controlMilk production is stimulated by prolactinMilk ejection is stimulated by oxytocinoProlactin- milk producing hormoneLevels increase as pregnancy progresses, but the presence of progesterone inhibits the effects of prolactin.After delivery, progesterone, and estrogen level decrease, which means prolactin becomes more effective.oOxytocin- hormone to eject the milk from glandsMilk is formed by the alveoli is stored until the baby begins sucking, at which point nerve impulses work on the posterior hypothalamus to induct oxytocin secretion. Oxytocin works on myoepithelial cells that surrounds the glands and ducts.Oxytocin also inhibits the release of prolactin-inhibiting hormone, thus increasing prolactin levels and milk production. oBenefits of breastfeedingBeneficial cells: gives baby important white blood cells.Beneficial molecules: transfer IgA antibodies, which typically afford the babyprotection from harmful microbes in the environments it shares with its mother. Supports optimal growth; enhances neurological development; establishes mother infant relationships; ready and adequate form of nutrients that is sterileand designed for baby’s digestive system.
Hormones work in regulating female reproductive cycleoBoth male and female share: GnRH, FSH, LH, and Inhibin. oLH stimulates ovulation that secrete estrogens and inhibin LH also stimulates corpus luteum that secrete progesterone, estrogens, relaxin, and inhibin.
oFSH stimulates the initial growth of ovarian follicle and the development which secrete inhibin and estrogen.