Through this new fi nishing method the new smart

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Through this new fi nishing method, the new smart textile can be created, containing fi bres that maintains conventional properties ( fl exibility, mechanical strength, and wearing comfort) but shows advanced functionalities and/or environmental responsiveness because of the surface modi fi cation of textile with a very thin layer of responsive hydrogel. The general concept of smart textile refers to textile structure that can sense and construe the stimuli in their environment and respond 44 N. Gokarneshan et al.
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appropriately. However, they should not be confused with multifunctional or high-performance textiles that are non-active materials with special properties (Bashari et al. 2013 ). Stimuli-responsive hydrogels can be grafted onto the surfaces of cotton (CO), polypropylene (PP), and polyester (PET) fabrics by using different techniques (Bashari et al. 2013 ). The most often studied methods are preactivation of textile by chemical (cationization and anionization) or physical (air, N 2 , Ar-plasma, or γ -irradiation) techniques or by using cross-linking agents (glu- taraldehyde and BTCA) for applying hydrogel particle on non-activated textile substrate (Matsukuma et al. 2006 ). The focus has been on study of the conventional properties (particularly physiological comfort properties) of cotton fabric after applying the thin layer of pH-temperature dual-responsive PNIPAAm/chitosan nanohydrogels. 11.3 Technical Details 100 % desized cotton fabric has been used. The chemicals used include NIPAAm monomer (99 % pure stabilized), chitosan (medium molecular weight, viscosity 1 % solution in 1 % acetic acid, 200 800 cps), N , N -methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) and ammonium persulphate (APS), BTCA, sodium hypophosphite (SHP), non-ionic surfactant Adrasil HP (P-836), and N , N , N , N -tetra methyl ethylene dia- mine (TEMED). Methylene blue (MB) and other chemicals were analytically graded and used without further puri fi cation. The responsiveness of modi fi ed cotton fabric with PNCS nanogels against pH and temperature has been proved in earlier work. The water uptake (WU) and water retention capacity (WRC) of modi fi ed cotton fabric were investigated for evaluation of smart property of textile against two above-mentioned stimuli (Aguilar et al. 2007 ). The effect of surface modi fi - cation on thickness of cotton fabric was assessed. The crease recovery angle of smart fabrics was measured. The yellowness index (YI) of modi fi ed fabric was measured. In order to study the stimuli-responsive fi nishing effect on physiological comfort parameters of cotton fabric, the water vapour transmission rate (WVT), air permeability, and vertical wicking of fabric were assessed. The water vapour transmission (WVT) of cotton fabrics was measured under two different conditions (25 and 40 °C and relative humidity 65 %). The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the temperature-responsive component of PNCS nanogels is found at around 32 °C, and hence two temperature conditions below and above the LCST have been chosen (Kittinaovarut 1998a ). The rate of water vapour transmission has been expressed in g/m 2 for 24 h.
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  • Fall '19
  • N. Gokarneshan

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