Ans: glyceradehyde-3-P+ Pi+ NAD+ +1,3-biphosphoglycerate +ADP ----> 1,3- biphosphoglycerate + NADH+H^+ +3-biphosphoglycerate +ATP b)(2 points) What is the calculated free energy ∆Go’of the combined reaction? ∆G= -10.9 kj/molc) (3 points) What does the free energy tell us regarding whether the two coupled reaction moves forward? Ans: The reaction doesn’t favor the products strongly.Problem 3. (36 Points) Glycolysis/gluconeogenesis is regulated at rate limiting steps as shown in the diagram below. GlucoseEnzyme 1Enzyme 2Glucose-6PFructose 6 PEnzyme 3Enzyme 4Fructose 1, 6 BP Phosphoenol pyruvate (PEP)Enzyme 5Enzymes 6, 7Pyruvate
Figure 1. Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis 1.(14 Points) At these rate limiting steps, separate enzymes are present for the forward and reverse reactions. Match the letter (a-g) of the enzymes listed below with the corresponding number (1-6) corresponding to the enzyme listed in Figure 1 above. Note- the number 6 is used twice, for enzymes that correspond to enzymes 6or 7. Otherwise, each glucose reaction enzyme has 1 answer.a.Fructose 1,6 Bisphosphatase b.Pyruvate carboxylase c.Phosphofructokinase (PFK) d.Hexokinase e.Pyruvate kinase (PK) f.Glucose-6 Phosphatase g.Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) 1.Enzyme 1 Ans: D 2.Enzyme 2 Ans: C3.Enzyme 3 Ans: A4.Enzyme 4 Ans: G5.Enzyme 5 Ans: B6.Enzyme 6,7 Ans: E2.(10 Points) PFK and its counterpart in the reverse reaction are highly regulated enzymes. State below how PFK changes state (activated vs. repressed) due to these conditions. c.Increased ATP repressedb. Increased ADP Activateda. Increased AMP Activatede. Increased Fructose 2,6 Bisphosphate (F2,6 BP) Repressedd.Increased Citrate Repressed3.(4 Points) As discussed in class, The F2,6 BP is a potent controller both enzyme 3 and enzyme 4 listed in Figure 1, which has been rewritten below in Figure 2 to show separate reactions for F6P and F1,6 BP. The fates of F6P are shown, with reactions in orange (gluconeogenesis), blue (glycolysis), and importantly the formation of Fructose 2, 6 bisphophatase (F2,6 BP). F62BP is an extremely potent regulator of enzyme 3 and enzyme 4. F26BP is synthesized from a single enzyme that has multifunctional activity, including Phosphofructokinase (PFK2) and Fructose Bisphosphatase 3 (FBPase-2), and the reaction that it controls is shown in black arrows.
Figure 2. Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis 4.(4 Points) What is the effect of F26BP on Enzyme 3? What is the effect of F26BP on Enzyme 4? 5.(8 Points) Figure 2 illustrates that at the rate limiting steps, gluconeogenesis is separate process than glycolysis rather than simply the reverse. Write T/F next to each statement below regarding gluconeogenesis compared to glycolysis. a.Energy charge regulates gluconeogenesis, but not glycolysis. Ans:Falseb.Control of glycolysis occurs at not a single, but at multiple rate limiting reactions. Ans: Truec.Separate reaction steps enable reciprocal regulation of gluconeogenesis and glycolysis, which means the factors that promote one process also inhibit the opposing the process. Ans: Trued.The rate limiting reactions of glycolysis are endergonic while the opposing the rate limiting processes in gluconeogenesis are exergonic as well Ans: True6.(4 Points
As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.
KiranTemple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern
I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.
DanaUniversity of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern
The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.
JillTulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern
Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
Ask Expert Tutors
You can ask
You can ask
(10 expire soon)
You can ask
(will expire )