pedagogical methodologies have documented dual language and paired literacy instructional models effective in bi-literacy development. The two programs help in closing the achievement gap in English in the shortest time possible. They also give students the opportunity to be bi-literate, bilingual and develop bi-cultural competencies. The article is relevant in discussion bilingual education because it addresses pertaining to bi-literacy development and bilingual education. More relevant information presented includes various approaches to develop bi-literacy in including dual language and paired literacy instructional model.
BILINGUAL EDUCATION 5Valdez, V. E., Freire, J. A., & Delavan, M. G. (2016). The gentrification of dual language education.The Urban Review,48(4), 601-627.The article by Valdez, Freire, and Delavan addresses transformation of dual language education. In this article authors focus on the Utah’s dual language education (DL) which is an initiative which was implemented in 2007 (p.602). The article asserts that DL is as an education model which offers grade-level content knowledge and it is associated with higher academic achievement, biliteracy, and bilingualism. The research was carried out to examine student groups that were in a better position to benefit from the policy across three kinds of privileges notably the wealthy, English and white racial. The research questions entailed; the reflection of core DL policy documents across race and language status. Kinds of DL programs instigated in pre-state model compared to state-model period. The demographic distributions and statistical significance based on class, language status and race across Utah schools that DL programs has housed in both periods. The study method entailed drawing on data correlated to the DL programand demographics of diverse schools in order to discuss the highlighted research questions. Theyfind a significant drop in access to DL programs to those without access to three privileges including wealth, racial and English. In discussing bilingual education, the article presents insightful information about how DL is one of enrichment education system associated with bilingualism. Also how gentrification of DL by the more privileged students may affect the equal distribution of enrichment education within the US schools. However, Valdez, Freire & Delavan have failed to explain the findings using real-life examples hence rendering the research inaccessible to readers with no prior knowledge on the topic