Changes in gas density directly related to changes in

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Introductory Chemistry
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Chapter 2 / Exercise 24
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Changes in gas density directly related to changes in pressure and temperature through following equation Ideal or perfect gas law or the equation of state for an ideal gas Where p is absolute pressure (it is a measured relative to absolute zero pressure; a pressure that would only occur in a perfect vacuum; standard sea- level atmospheric pressure is 14.696 psi (abs) or 101.33 kPa (abs)) density, T the absolute temperature and R is a gas constant RT p 51
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Introductory Chemistry
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Chapter 2 / Exercise 24
Introductory Chemistry
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Viscosity: another very significant property Viscosity is a measure of a fluid's resistance to flow Newtonian Fluids: A fluid that behaves according to Newton's law, with a viscosity μ (absolute or dynamic or simply viscosity) that is independent of the stress, is said to be Newtonian. Gases, water and many common liquids can be considered Newtonian in ordinary conditions and contexts. Most of the common fluids (water, air, oil, etc.) Also called Linear fluids 52
Viscosity contd Non-Newtonian Fluids: There are many fluids that significantly deviate from that law in some way or other. For example: Special fluids (e.g., most biological fluids, toothpaste, some paints, etc.) Also called “Non - linear” fluids 53
Viscosity Kinematic viscosity , Shear thinning fluids the apparent viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate; the harder the fluid is sheared, the less viscous it becomes. Examples - many colloidal suspensions and polymer solutions are shear thinning. For example, latex paint does not drip from the brush because the shear rate is small and the apparent viscosity is large. However, it flows smoothly onto the wall because the thin layer of paint between the wall and the brush causes a large shear rate and a small apparent viscosity. 54
Viscosity Shear thickening fluids the apparent viscosity increases with increasing shear rate; the harder the fluid is sheared, the more viscous it becomes Examples - water-corn starch mixture and water-sand mixture (quicksand). Thus, the difficulty in removing an object from quicksand increases dramatically as the speed of removal increases Bingham plastic neither a fluid nor a solid; such material can withstand a finite shear stress without motion, but once the yield stress is exceeded it flows like a fluid Examples toothpaste and mayonnaise 55
Characteristic of Real Fluid in presence of a solid boundary 56 Real fluids, even though they may be moving, always stick to the solid boundaries that contain them. THIS IS KNOWN AS NO-SLIP CONDITION
Compressibility of fluids 57 Bulk modulus. Compression and expansion of gases. Speed of sound.
Compressibility of fluids Bulk Modulus ( ): How compressible is the fluid? Change in volume (or density) of a fluid with change in pressure Since decrease in volume of a given mass, ( ) will result in an increase in density. Thus, we can write The bulk modulus (also referred to as the bulk modulus of elasticity) has dimensions of pressure (FL -2 ) [lb/in 2 or psi; N/m 2 or Pa] / d dp E v m / d dp E v 58 v E
Compression and Expansion of Gases

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