We have to promote new forms of subjectivity through the refusal of an

We have to promote new forms of subjectivity through

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type of individualization which is linked to the state. We have to promote new forms of subjectivity through the refusal of an individuality that has been imposed on us. The Exercise of Power • Power designates relationships between partners. Power relations can be grasped in the diversity of their logical sequence, their abilities and their interrelationships • the exercise of power is a way in which certain actions modify others. Power exists only when it is put into action. What defines a relationship of power is that it is a mode of action which does not act directly and immediately on others. It is an action upon an action. • In itself the exercise of power is not violence... it is a total structure of actions brought to bear upon possible actions. It incites, it induces, it seduces, it makes easier or more difficult; in the extreme it constrains or forbids absolutely • to govern: to structure the possible field of actions of others • power is exercised only over free subjects • free subjects are individuals who are faced with a field of possibilities in which several ways of behaving, several reactions and diverse comportments may be realized • slavery is not a power relationship • the relationship between power and freedom’s refusal to submit cannot be separated How to analyze power relationships • we must analyze institutions from the standpoint of power relations. Power relations are not above society but deeply rooted in the social nexus. A society without power relations can only be an abstraction • Analysis requires the following: • the system of differentiations: every relationship of power puts in to operation differentiations which are at the same time its conditions and its results • the types of objectives pursued by those who act upon the actions of others • the means of bringing power relations into being • forms of institutionalization • degrees of rationalization Power Strategy • the totality of the means put into operation to implement power effectively or to maintain it • every power relationship implies, at least potentially, a strategy of struggle in which each force constitutes for each other a kind of permanent limit, a point of possible reversal • a relationship of struggle has as its target a power relationship • at every moment the relationship of power may become a confrontation between two adversaries. Equally the relationship between adversaries in society may, at every moment, put into operation mechanisms of power

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