The neighborhoods in which children grow up have an effect on academic success

The neighborhoods in which children grow up have an

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The neighborhoods in which children grow up have an effect on academic success, mental health, and sexual behavior. Neighborhoods influence development through the institutional resources they provide, the parenting styles practiced in response to safety, the support network perceived to exist in the neighborhood, and the individual and collective efforts of community residents to supervise and monitor the development of youth. What is the impact on adolescents of exposure to violence? What factors promote successful adaptation to this exposure? Exposure to violence is linked to PTSD, depression, anxiety, substance use, and the tendency to commit aggressive acts. Modeling and coaching youth in active, problem-focused coping strategies can help to mitigate these effects, as does the practice of religious and spiritual behaviors. What adverse developmental outcomes do some children from affluent families manifest? For some children from affluent families, high pressures to achieve, combined with lack of emotional connection to parents, are associated with depression, anxiety, and substance use. What are the most serious consequences for children experiencing war, and what procedures may be most effective in dealing with those consequences? Children who witness war evidence the symptoms of PTSD, especially within the first year of their exposure. Successful interventions have involved placing children in a secure environment, as well as providing support to caregivers, who have the potential to, in turn, be helpful to their children. 308200_Ch16.indd Page 575 6/4/07 11:50:41 PM elhi /Users/elhi/Desktop/BUKATKO/1614T_Bukatko%0/hmbuk1indd/308200_ch16
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Evidences rapid gains in height and weight, with faster rates of growth in the head region and regions nearer the center of the body Shows period of rapid brain development, including formation and pruning of synapses Shows basic learning capabilities in the form of habitua- tion, operant and classical conditioning, and imitation Shows improvements in visual accommodation, saccadic movements, acuity, and vergence Attracted first to external features of objects and to movement, and later to internal features of objects Localizes sounds Recognizes melodic rhythms and other features of music Shows sensitivity to smells, tastes, and tactile stimuli Attends to increasingly complex patterns including those with facelike organization Responsive to biological motion Shows signs of depth perception Shows intermodal perception Develops means-ends behavior Attains the object concept Shows sensitivity to changes in number Relies on egocentric and landmark cues to locate objects Classifies objects according to physical similarities, as well as thematic and simple taxonomic relations Distinguishes between animate and inanimate objects Shows recognition memory for simple stimuli Shows long-term recall in elicited imitation tasks Shows simple problem-solving behaviors, including transfer Discriminates among phonemes Discriminates own language from others
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