do this, she worked to exploit contradictions in the ideology of civilized manhood, much as Ida B. Wells had done. Gilman, however, writing two decades later than Wells, was unable to convince her political opponents that primitive masculine brutality was an unmitigated evil. Gilman's example, like Wells', reminds us that women, too, were en - gaged in the ongoing historical process of remaking manhood. Theodore Roosevelt, more than any man of his generation, embodied vir- ile manhood for the American public. Chapter 5 argues that one source of his vibrant virility was Roosevelt's talent for embodying two contradictory models of manhood simultaneously-civilized manliness and primitive mas- culinity. Combining manliness and masculinity, civilization and the prim - itive, Roosevelt modeled a new type of manhood for the American people, based firmly on the millennial evolutionary ideology of civilization. Through this new type of manhood, Roosevelt claimed not only a personal power for himself but also a collective imperialistic manhood for the white American race. Taken collectively, these four figures suggest how flexible the discourse of civilization was, how useful for the project of remaking manhood. Each ha d a different political agenda, and each invoked a somewhat different version of civilization. At first glance, it might seem inappropriate to consider them as a group. Puzzled readers may wonder how an antilynching activist, a pro- fessor of pedagogy, a feminist theorist, and a president of the United States could possibly shed any light on each others' activities. Yet when taken to- gether, it becomes clear that each is drawing on a recognizable and cohere nt set of assumptions about the historical relationship between race and man - hood. Each accepts parts of this discourse, and each tries to change other parts. Strategies used by one person pop up, in slightly altered forms, in the writings of another. Together, they demonstrate the turn-of-the-century meanings of the term "civilization" and illuminate some of the complex ways that ideologies of race and of gender have constructed one another in Ameri- can history. 2 "The White Mans Civilization on Trial": Ida B. Wells, Representations of Lynching, and Northern Middle-Class Manhood " For, if civilization means anything, it means se lf- res traint ; cas ting away self-restraint the white man becomes as sa vage as the ne gro. " RAY STA NNA RD BAKER , " WHAT IS A LY NCHING) "! " It is the white mans civilization and the whit e mans gov e rnm ent which are on trial. " IDA B. WE LLS, A REo RE co 1 w2 11 1 Marc h 1894, Ida B. Wells sailed to England in order to agitate against the 11· .(' nf racial violence in the United States. She left a country where lynch in g w. 1 ', rarely mentioned in the white Northe rn press, and where she herself was 1 11drnown to most whites. Three months later, she returned to the United ', 1.11 rs a celebrit y, vilified as a "s landerous and nasty-minded mulatress" by o1 11 nc papers but lauded by others.
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- Summer '14
- White people, manhood, Jack Johnson, middle-class men